OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema by investigating the clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography imaging features of patients with pulmonary abscesses. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the chest computed tomography findings and clinical features of 101 cases of pulmonary abscess, including 25 cases with empyema (the experimental group) and 76 cases with no empyema (the control group). The potential risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema were compared between the groups by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The incidence of pulmonary abscess-related empyema was 24.8% (25/101). Univariate analysis showed that male gender, diabetes, pleuritic symptoms, white blood cells >10×109/L, albumin level <25 g/L, and positive sputum cultures were potential clinical-related risk factors and that an abscess >5 cm in diameter and transpulmonary fissure abscesses were potential computed tomography imaging-related risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that transpulmonary fissure abscesses (odds ratio=9.102, p=0.003), diabetes (odds ratio=9.066, p=0.003), an abscess >5 cm in diameter (odds ratio=8.998, p=0.002), and pleuritic symptoms (odds ratio=5.395, p=0.015) were independent risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema. CONCLUSIONS: Transpulmonary fissure abscesses, diabetes, giant pulmonary abscesses, and pleuritic symptoms increased the risk of empyema among patients with pulmonary abscesses.
Palha, espiga e estigma de milho foram extraídos com água, etanol aquoso, metanol aquoso e acetato de etila, respectivamente. O conteúdo fenólico total (TPC), conteúdo flavonóide total (TFC), conteúdo cetoesteróide total (TKC) e atividades antioxidantes [atividade de sequestro de radicais, poder redutor, e poder antioxidante-redutor férrico (FRAP) de 2,2'-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,4,6-tri(2-piridil)-1,3,5-triazina (TPTZ) e 2,2'-azinobis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico) (ABTS)] dos extratos foram identificados. Os principais componentes antioxidantes foram posteriormente determinados e quantificados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). Os resultados revelaram que etanol e metanol aquosos foram mais eficientes na extração de constituintes antioxidantes da espiga, palha e estigma do milho. Oito componentes antioxidantes principais foram detectados como subprodutos e os conteúdos de quatro componentes antioxidantes principais foram determinados. O trabalho presente revelou que a espiga e palha de milho mostram valores de TPC, TFC e TKC altos e similares, e atividade antioxidante com o estigma de milho que podem ser usados como potenciais candidatos na prevenção de doenças relacionadas a vários subprodutos oxidantes do metabolismo humano.
Cornhusk, corncob, and stigma maydis were extracted with water, aqueous ethanol, aqueous methanol, and ethyl acetate, respectively. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), total ketosteroid contents (TKC), and antioxidant activities [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP)] of the above extracts were investigated. Their main antioxidant components were further determined and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that the aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol were more efficient in extracting antioxidant constituents from cornhusk, corncob, and stigma maydis. Eight main antioxidant components were detected from above three by-products, and the contents of four main antioxidant components were determined. The present work revealed that the cornhusk and corncob showed similar high TPC, TFC, TKC, and antioxidant activities with stigma maydis, and could be used as potential candidates for the prevention of diseases related to various oxidant by-products of human metabolism.
Plant pathogenic fungi have long been documented through concerted efforts of mycologists and plant pathologists; these records have served as the basis for regional and countrywide checklists which have since been put into databases listing hosts and associated fungi. They are used by governments and scientists to formulate trade quarantine policies and determine research funding, such as in plant breeding programs and disease control. With the ability to use molecular characters to study the systematics of fungi it is clear that morphologically defined species are often large complexes comprised of genetically and biologically distinct species. Use of molecular techniques to examine species complexes has revealed cryptic species in many important plant pathogenic genera, e.g. Botryosphaeria, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, and Mycosphaerella. It has occurred to such an extent that existing checklists and databases need updating. It is important that the data from these studies, including changes in taxonomy and nomenclature, be incorporated into the databases of plant pathogenic fungi to support accurate plant quarantine decisions. In addition, epitypifying fungi by re-collecting material from type habitats and isolating the organism into pure culture will provide essential materials for systematics studies to further clarify the taxonomy and phylogeny of plant pathogenic fungi. Overall, we conclude that disease lists are likely to be highly outdated and advocate the need for countrywide re-inventory of plant pathogens. As a result of these studies, tools can be developed that use morphological or molecular characters, or both, to promote accurate identification of plant pathogenic fungi.