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1. First occurrence of Arnold Chiari type II malformation and associated abnormalities in a Gir calf produced in vitro from Brazil - case report
Toma, H.S. ; Barreto, J.V.P. ; Amude, A.M. ; Toma, C.D.M. ; Carvalho, A.M. ; Cabral, L.S. ; Munhoz, T.C.P. ; Pertile, S.F.N. ; Cunha Filho, L.F.C. .
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia aug 2021, Volume 73 N. 4 Pages 916 - 922
ABSTRACT This study characterized the clinical, radiological, ultrasound, and necroscopic findings of a case of Arnold-Chiari type II malformation in a Gir breed calf from Brazil. The animal was hospitalized at sixty days of age, in permanent sternal recumbency, cutaneous appendix at the 4th lumbar vertebra and kyphoscoliosis of the caudal and lumbosacral thoracic spine. Radiographic examination of the spine and skull revealed spina bifida and suspected occipital hypoplasia. Upon examination of myelography with an injection of lumbar and atlantooccipital contrast, it was possible to visualize the meningocele at the 4th lumbar vertebra region and findings at the rhombencephalon level of increased regional pressure with failure to fill the contrast in the posterior fossa, in the presence of clear demarcation of the circumvolutions of the cerebral cortex and the subarachnoid space of the cervical spinal cord. Ultrasonographic examination of the cerebellum showed an insinuation of the cerebellar worm through the foramen magnum. The animal did not show changes in complete blood count, biochemical series, and cerebrospinal fluid and was negative for Pestivirus. There was a worsening of the clinical conditions and the animal died. This malformation of unknown etiology must be studied as a differential diagnosis of the nervous system disorders.
RESUMO Este estudo caracterizou os achados clínicos, radiológicos, ultrassonográficos e necroscópicos de um caso de malformação de Arnold-Chiari tipo II em uma bezerra Gir no Brasil. O animal foi hospilatizado aos 60 dias de idade, apresentando decúbito esternal permanente, apêndice cutâneo na altura da quarta vértebra lombar e cifoescoliose da coluna vertebral torácica caudal e lombossacra. Ao exame radiográfico da coluna e do crânio, foram observadas espinha bífida e suspeita de hipoplasia occipital. Ao exame de mielografia com injeção de contraste lombar e atlanto-occipital, foi possivel visualizar a meningocele na altura da quarta vértebra lombar e achados em nível rombencefálico de aumento da pressão regional com falha de preenchimento do contraste na fossa posterior, na presença de nítida demarcação das circunvoluções do córtex cerebral e do espaço subaracnoide da medula espinhal cervical. Ao exame ultrassonográfico do cerebelo, foi observada insinuação do verme cerebelar através do forame magno. O animal não apresentou alterações em hemograma completo, série bioquímica e fluido cérebro-espinhal e foi negativo para Pestivirus. Houve uma piora do quadro clínico e o animal morreu. Essa malformação de etiologia desconhecida deve ser estudada como um diagnóstico diferencial.
2. Growing knowledge: an overview of Seed Plant diversity in Brazil
Zappi, Daniela C. ; Filardi, Fabiana L. Ranzato ; Leitman, Paula ; Souza, Vinícius C. ; Walter, Bruno M.T. ; Pirani, José R. ; Morim, Marli P. ; Queiroz, Luciano P. ; Cavalcanti, Taciana B. ; Mansano, Vidal F. ; Forzza, Rafaela C. ; Abreu, Maria C. ; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro ; Agra, Maria F. ; Almeida Jr., Eduardo B. ; Almeida, Gracineide S.S. ; Almeida, Rafael F. ; Alves, Flávio M. ; Alves, Marccus ; Alves-Araujo, Anderson ; Amaral, Maria C.E. ; Amorim, André M. ; Amorim, Bruno ; Andrade, Ivanilza M. ; Andreata, Regina H.P. ; Andrino, Caroline O. ; Anunciação, Elisete A. ; Aona, Lidyanne Y.S. ; Aranguren, Yani ; Aranha Filho, João L.M. ; Araújo, Andrea O. ; Araújo, Ariclenes A.M. ; Araújo, Diogo ; Arbo, María M. ; Assis, Leandro ; Assis, Marta C. ; Assunção, Vivian A. ; Athiê-Souza, Sarah M. ; Azevedo, Cecilia O. ; Baitello, João B. ; Barberena, Felipe F.V.A. ; Barbosa, Maria R.V. ; Barros, Fábio ; Barros, Lucas A.V. ; Barros, Michel J.F. ; Baumgratz, José F.A. ; Bernacci, Luis C. ; Berry, Paul E. ; Bigio, Narcísio C. ; Biral, Leonardo ; Bittrich, Volker ; Borges, Rafael A.X. ; Bortoluzzi, Roseli L.C. ; Bove, Cláudia P. ; Bovini, Massimo G. ; Braga, João M.A. ; Braz, Denise M. ; Bringel Jr., João B.A. ; Bruniera, Carla P. ; Buturi, Camila V. ; Cabral, Elza ; Cabral, Fernanda N. ; Caddah, Mayara K. ; Caires, Claudenir S. ; Calazans, Luana S.B. ; Calió, Maria F. ; Camargo, Rodrigo A. ; Campbell, Lisa ; Canto-Dorow, Thais S. ; Carauta, Jorge P.P. ; Cardiel, José M. ; Cardoso, Domingos B.O.S. ; Cardoso, Leandro J.T. ; Carneiro, Camila R. ; Carneiro, Cláudia E. ; Carneiro-Torres, Daniela S. ; Carrijo, Tatiana T. ; Caruzo, Maria B.R. ; Carvalho, Maria L.S. ; Carvalho-Silva, Micheline ; Castello, Ana C.D. ; Cavalheiro, Larissa ; Cervi, Armando C. ; Chacon, Roberta G. ; Chautems, Alain ; Chiavegatto, Berenice ; Chukr, Nádia S. ; Coelho, Alexa A.O.P. ; Coelho, Marcus A.N. ; Coelho, Rubens L.G. ; Cordeiro, Inês ; Cordula, Elizabeth ; Cornejo, Xavier ; Côrtes, Ana L.A. ; Costa, Andrea F. ; Costa, Fabiane N. ; Costa, Jorge A.S. ; Costa, Leila C. ; Costa-e-Silva, Maria B. ; Costa-Lima, James L. ; Cota, Maria R.C. ; Couto, Ricardo S. ; Daly, Douglas C. ; De Stefano, Rodrigo D. ; De Toni, Karen ; Dematteis, Massimiliano ; Dettke, Greta A. ; Di Maio, Fernando R. ; Dórea, Marcos C. ; Duarte, Marília C. ; Dutilh, Julie H.A. ; Dutra, Valquíria F. ; Echternacht, Lívia ; Eggers, Lilian ; Esteves, Gerleni ; Ezcurra, Cecilia ; Falcão Junior, Marcus J.A. ; Feres, Fabíola ; Fernandes, José M. ; Ferreira, D.M.C. ; Ferreira, Fabrício M. ; Ferreira, Gabriel E. ; Ferreira, Priscila P.A. ; Ferreira, Silvana C. ; Ferrucci, Maria S. ; Fiaschi, Pedro ; Filgueiras, Tarciso S. ; Firens, Marcela ; Flores, Andreia S. ; Forero, Enrique ; Forster, Wellington ; Fortuna-Perez, Ana P. ; Fortunato, Reneé H. ; Fraga, Cléudio N. ; França, Flávio ; Francener, Augusto ; Freitas, Joelcio ; Freitas, Maria F. ; Fritsch, Peter W. ; Furtado, Samyra G. ; Gaglioti, André L. ; Garcia, Flávia C.P. ; Germano Filho, Pedro ; Giacomin, Leandro ; Gil, André S.B. ; Giulietti, Ana M. ; A.P.Godoy, Silvana ; Goldenberg, Renato ; Gomes da Costa, Géssica A. ; Gomes, Mário ; Gomes-Klein, Vera L. ; Gonçalves, Eduardo Gomes ; Graham, Shirley ; Groppo, Milton ; Guedes, Juliana S. ; Guimarães, Leonardo R.S. ; Guimarães, Paulo J.F. ; Guimarães, Elsie F. ; Gutierrez, Raul ; Harley, Raymond ; Hassemer, Gustavo ; Hattori, Eric K.O. ; Hefler, Sonia M. ; Heiden, Gustavo ; Henderson, Andrew ; Hensold, Nancy ; Hiepko, Paul ; Holanda, Ana S.S. ; Iganci, João R.V. ; Imig, Daniela C. ; Indriunas, Alexandre ; Jacques, Eliane L. ; Jardim, Jomar G. ; Kamer, Hiltje M. ; Kameyama, Cíntia ; Kinoshita, Luiza S. ; Kirizawa, Mizué ; Klitgaard, Bente B. ; Koch, Ingrid ; Koschnitzke, Cristiana ; Krauss, Nathália P. ; Kriebel, Ricardo ; Kuntz, Juliana ; Larocca, João ; Leal, Eduardo S. ; Lewis, Gwilym P. ; Lima, Carla T. ; Lima, Haroldo C. ; Lima, Itamar B. ; Lima, Laíce F.G. ; Lima, Laura C.P. ; Lima, Leticia R. ; Lima, Luís F.P. ; Lima, Rita B. ; Lírio, Elton J. ; Liro, Renata M. ; Lleras, Eduardo ; Lobão, Adriana ; Loeuille, Benoit ; Lohmann, Lúcia G. ; Loiola, Maria I.B. ; Lombardi, Julio A. ; Longhi-Wagner, Hilda M. ; Lopes, Rosana C. ; Lorencini, Tiago S. ; Louzada, Rafael B. ; Lovo, Juliana ; Lozano, Eduardo D. ; Lucas, Eve ; Ludtke, Raquel ; Luz, Christian L. ; Maas, Paul ; Machado, Anderson F.P. ; Macias, Leila ; Maciel, Jefferson R. ; Magenta, Mara A.G. ; Mamede, Maria C.H. ; Manoel, Evelin A. ; Marchioretto, Maria S. ; Marques, Juliana S. ; Marquete, Nilda ; Marquete, Ronaldo ; Martinelli, Gustavo ; Martins da Silva, Regina C.V. ; Martins, Ângela B. ; Martins, Erika R. ; Martins, Márcio L.L. ; Martins, Milena V. ; Martins, Renata C. ; Matias, Ligia Q. ; Maya-L., Carlos A. ; Mayo, Simon ; Mazine, Fiorella ; Medeiros, Debora ; Medeiros, Erika S. ; Medeiros, Herison ; Medeiros, João D. ; Meireles, José E. ; Mello-Silva, Renato ; Melo, Aline ; Melo, André L. ; Melo, Efigênia ; Melo, José I.M. ; Menezes, Cristine G. ; Menini Neto, Luiz ; Mentz, Lilian A. ; Mezzonato, A.C. ; Michelangeli, Fabián A. ; Milward-de-Azevedo, Michaele A. ; Miotto, Silvia T.S. ; Miranda, Vitor F.O. ; Mondin, Cláudio A. ; Monge, Marcelo ; Monteiro, Daniele ; Monteiro, Raquel F. ; Moraes, Marta D. ; Moraes, Pedro L.R. ; Mori, Scott A. ; Mota, Aline C. ; Mota, Nara F.O. ; Moura, Tania M. ; Mulgura, Maria ; Nakajima, Jimi N. ; Nardy, Camila ; Nascimento Júnior, José E. ; Noblick, Larry ; Nunes, Teonildes S. ; O'Leary, Nataly ; Oliveira, Arline S. ; Oliveira, Caetano T. ; Oliveira, Juliana A. ; Oliveira, Luciana S.D. ; Oliveira, Maria L.A.A. ; Oliveira, Regina C. ; Oliveira, Renata S. ; Oliveira, Reyjane P. ; Paixão-Souza, Bruno ; Parra, Lara R. ; Pasini, Eduardo ; Pastore, José F.B. ; Pastore, Mayara ; Paula-Souza, Juliana ; Pederneiras, Leandro C. ; Peixoto, Ariane L. ; Pelissari, Gisela ; Pellegrini, Marco O.O. ; Pennington, Toby ; Perdiz, Ricardo O. ; Pereira, Anna C.M. ; Pereira, Maria S. ; Pereira, Rodrigo A.S. ; Pessoa, Clenia ; Pessoa, Edlley M. ; Pessoa, Maria C.R. ; Pinto, Luiz J.S. ; Pinto, Rafael B. ; Pontes, Tiago A. ; Prance, Ghillean T. ; Proença, Carolyn ; Profice, Sheila R. ; Pscheidt, Allan C. ; Queiroz, George A. ; Queiroz, Rubens T. ; Quinet, Alexandre ; Rainer, Heimo ; Ramos, Eliana ; Rando, Juliana G. ; Rapini, Alessandro ; Reginato, Marcelo ; Reis, Ilka P. ; Reis, Priscila A. ; Ribeiro, André R.O. ; Ribeiro, José E.L.S. ; Riina, Ricarda ; Ritter, Mara R. ; Rivadavia, Fernando ; Rocha, Antônio E.S. ; Rocha, Maria J.R. ; Rodrigues, Izabella M.C. ; Rodrigues, Karina F. ; Rodrigues, Rodrigo S. ; Rodrigues, Rodrigo S. ; Rodrigues, Vinícius T. ; Rodrigues, William ; Romaniuc Neto, Sérgio ; Romão, Gerson O. ; Romero, Rosana ; Roque, Nádia ; Rosa, Patrícia ; Rossi, Lúcia ; Sá, Cyl F.C. ; Saavedra, Mariana M. ; Saka, Mariana ; Sakuragui, Cássia M. ; Salas, Roberto M. ; Sales, Margareth F. ; Salimena, Fatima R.G. ; Sampaio, Daniela ; Sancho, Gisela ; Sano, Paulo T. ; Santos, Alessandra ; Santos, Élide P. ; Santos, Juliana S. ; Santos, Marianna R. ; Santos-Gonçalves, Ana P. ; Santos-Silva, Fernanda ; São-Mateus, Wallace ; Saraiva, Deisy P. ; Saridakis, Dennis P. ; Sartori, Ângela L.B. ; Scalon, Viviane R. ; Schneider, Ângelo ; Sebastiani, Renata ; Secco, Ricardo S. ; Senna, Luisa ; Senna-Valle, Luci ; Shirasuna, Regina T. ; Silva Filho, Pedro J.S. ; Silva, Anádria S. ; Silva, Christian ; Silva, Genilson A.R. ; Silva, Gisele O. ; Silva, Márcia C.R. ; Silva, Marcos J. ; Silva, Marcos J. ; Silva, Otávio L.M. ; Silva, Rafaela A.P. ; Silva, Saura R. ; Silva, Tania R.S. ; Silva-Gonçalves, Kelly C. ; Silva-Luz, Cíntia L. ; Simão-Bianchini, Rosângela ; Simões, André O. ; Simpson, Beryl ; Siniscalchi, Carolina M. ; Siqueira Filho, José A. ; Siqueira, Carlos E. ; Siqueira, Josafá C. ; Smith, Nathan P. ; Snak, Cristiane ; Soares Neto, Raimundo L. ; Soares, Kelen P. ; Soares, Marcos V.B. ; Soares, Maria L. ; Soares, Polyana N. ; Sobral, Marcos ; Sodré, Rodolfo C. ; Somner, Genise V. ; Sothers, Cynthia A. ; Sousa, Danilo J.L. ; Souza, Elnatan B. ; Souza, Élvia R. ; Souza, Marcelo ; Souza, Maria L.D.R. ; Souza-Buturi, Fátima O. ; Spina, Andréa P. ; Stapf, María N.S. ; Stefano, Marina V. ; Stehmann, João R. ; Steinmann, Victor ; Takeuchi, Cátia ; Taylor, Charlotte M. ; Taylor, Nigel P. ; Teles, Aristônio M. ; Temponi, Lívia G. ; Terra-Araujo, Mário H. ; Thode, Veronica ; Thomas, W.Wayt ; Tissot-Squalli, Mara L. ; Torke, Benjamin M. ; Torres, Roseli B. ; Tozzi, Ana M.G.A. ; Trad, Rafaela J. ; Trevisan, Rafael ; Trovó, Marcelo ; Valls, José F.M. ; Vaz, Angela M.S.F. ; Versieux, Leonardo ; Viana, Pedro L. ; Vianna Filho, Marcelo D.M. ; Vieira, Ana O.S. ; Vieira, Diego D. ; Vignoli-Silva, Márcia ; Vilar, Thaisa ; Vinhos, Franklin ; Wallnöfer, Bruno ; Wanderley, Maria G.L. ; Wasshausen, Dieter ; Watanabe, Maurício T.C. ; Weigend, Maximilian ; Welker, Cassiano A.D. ; Woodgyer, Elizabeth ; Xifreda, Cecilia C. ; Yamamoto, Kikyo ; Zanin, Ana ; Zenni, Rafael D. ; Zickel, Carmem S .
Rodriguésia 2015, Volume 66 N. 4 Pages 1085 - 1113
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860201566411 33340 downloads
3. Central 5-HT2A receptors modulate the vagal bradycardia in response to activation of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex in anesthetized rats
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research mar 2011, Volume 44 N. 3 Pages 224 - 228
Activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors modulates the excitability of cardiac vagal motoneurones, but the precise role of 5-HT2A/2B receptors in these phenomena is unclear. We report here the effects of intracisternal (ic) administration of selective 5-HT2A/2B antagonists on the vagal bradycardia elicited by activation of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex with phenylbiguanide. The experiments were performed on urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats (250-270 g, N = 7-9 per group). The animals were placed in a stereotaxic frame and their atlanto-occipital membrane was exposed to allow ic injections. The rats received atenolol (1 mg/kg, iv) to block the sympathetic component of the reflex bradycardia; 20-min later, the cardiopulmonary reflex was induced with phenylbiguanide (15 µg/kg, iv) injected at 15-min intervals until 3 similar bradycardias were obtained. Ten minutes after the last pre-drug bradycardia, R-96544 (a 5-HT2A antagonist; 0.1 µmol/kg), SB-204741 (a 5-HT2B antagonist; 0.1 µmol/kg) or vehicle was injected ic. The subsequent iv injections of phenylbiguanide were administered 5, 20, 35, and 50 min after the ic injection. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonism attenuated the vagal bradycardia and hypotension, with maximal effect at 35 min after the antagonist (pre-drug = -200 ± 11 bpm and -42 ± 3 mmHg; at 35 min = -84 ± 10 bpm and -33 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Neither the 5-HT2B receptor antagonists nor the vehicle changed the reflex. These data suggest that central 5-HT2A receptors modulate the central pathways of the parasympathetic component of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500016 2285 downloads
4. Endogenous angiotensin II modulates nNOS expression in renovascular hypertension
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research jul 2009, Volume 42 N. 7 Pages 685 - 691
Nitric oxide (NO) influences renal blood flow mainly as a result of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Nevertheless, it is unclear how nNOS expression is modulated by endogenous angiotensin II, an inhibitor of NO function. We tested the hypothesis that the angiotensin II AT1 receptor and oxidative stress mediated by NADPH oxidase contribute to the modulation of renal nNOS expression in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Experiments were performed on male Wistar rats (150 to 170 g body weight) divided into 2K1C (N = 19) and sham-operated (N = 19) groups. nNOS expression in kidneys of 2K1C hypertensive rats (N = 9) was compared by Western blotting to that of 2K1C rats treated with low doses of the AT1 antagonist losartan (10 mg·kg-1·day-1; N = 5) or the superoxide scavenger tempol (0.2 mmol·kg-1·day-1; N = 5), which still remain hypertensive. After 28 days, nNOS expression was significantly increased by 1.7-fold in the clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats and by 3-fold in the non-clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats compared with sham rats, but was normalized by losartan. With tempol treatment, nNOS expression increased 2-fold in the clipped kidneys and 1.4-fold in the non-clipped kidneys compared with sham rats. The changes in nNOS expression were not followed by changes in the enzyme activity, as measured indirectly by the cGMP method. In conclusion, AT1 receptors and oxidative stress seem to be primary stimuli for increased nNOS expression, but this up-regulation does not result in higher enzyme activity.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2009000700014 2098 downloads
5. Chronic experimental myocardial infarction produces antinatriuresis by a renal nerve-dependent mechanism
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research feb 2004, Volume 37 N. 2 Pages 285 - 293
The present study focused on the role of sympathetic renal nerve activity, in mediating congestive heart failure-induced sodium retention following experimental chronic myocardial infarction. Groups of male Wistar rats (240-260 g) were studied: sham-operated coronary ligation (CON3W, N = 11), coronary ligation and sham-operated renal denervation (INF3W, N = 19), 3 weeks of coronary ligation and sympathetic renal nerve denervation (INF3WDX, N = 6), sham-operated coronary ligation (N = 7), and 16 weeks of coronary ligation (INF16W, N = 7). An acute experimental protocol was used in which the volume overload (VO; 5% of body weight) was applied for 30 min after the equilibration period of continuous iv infusion of saline. Compared to control levels, VO produced an increase (P < 0.01, ANOVA) in urine flow rate (UFR; 570%) and urinary sodium excretion (USE; 1117%) in CON3W. VO induced a smaller increase (P < 0.01) in USE (684%) in INF3W. A similar response was also observed in INF16W. In INF3WDX, VO produced an immediate and large increase (P < 0.01) in UFR (547%) and USE (1211%). Similarly, in INF3W VO increased (P < 0.01) UFR (394%) and USE (894%). Compared with INF3W, VO induced a higher (P < 0.01) USE in INF3WDX, whose values were similar to those for CON3W. These results suggest that renal sympathetic activity may be involved in sodium retention induced by congestive heart failure. This premise is supported by the observation that in bilaterally renal denervated INF3WDX rats myocardial infarction was unable to reduce volume expansion-induced natriuresis. However, the mechanism involved in urinary volume regulation seems to be insensitive to the factors that alter natriuresis.
6. Diferentes densidades de estocagem na produção de alevinos de trairão (Hoplias cf. lacerdae)
Salaro, Ana Lúcia ; Luz, Ronald Kennedy ; Nogueira, Gláucio Cristiano Cabral de Barros ; Reis, Alex ; Sakabe, Róberson ; Lambertucci, Daniel Moreira .
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia oct 2003, Volume 32 N. 5 Pages 1033 - 1036
Trairão (Hoplias cf. lacerdae) fingerlings, averaging 12.52 g and 10.5 cm, respectively, previously trained to accept artificial feed, were stocked in six tanks (5 m²), under two stocking rates: 1 and 4 fingerling/m², constituting the treatments t1 and t2, respectively. The fishes of the different treatments were ad libitum fed an extruded commercial diet containing 42% crude protein, at 8 a.m. and 2 p.m. at each 30 days, the water volume of all tanks was 100% replaced. at the end of the experiment, 120 days, the fishes productive performance was evaluated by means of survival rate, feed:gain ratio and daily length and weight gains. average survival rates of 86.7 and 96.7% were observed for the stocking rates of 1 and 4 fish/m², respectively. feed:gain ratio of 1.6 and 1.2 and daily length and weight gains of .70 and .38 g and 8.01 and 7.27 cm, respectively, were obtained for both densities. these values did not differ from each other. it was concluded that it is viable to produce the trairao fingerlings, under the evaluated stocking rates, without reducing performance.
Alevinos de trairão (Hoplias cf. lacerdae), com peso e comprimento total médios de 12,52 g e 10,5 cm, respectivamente, previamente condicionados ao aceite de dietas artificiais, foram distribuídos em seis tanques de alvenaria (5m²) nas densidades de: 1 e 4 alevinos/m². Os peixes dos diferentes tratamentos foram alimentados ad libitum nos horários de 8 e 14 h com ração comercial extrusada contendo 42% de proteína bruta. A cada trinta dias realizou-se a troca do volume total de água de todos os tanques. Ao final do experimento (120 dias) foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo dos peixes, por meio da taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar, ganhos em comprimento e em peso diário. Foram observadas taxas médias de sobrevivência de 86,7 e 96,7% para as densidades de 1 e 4 peixes/m², respectivamente. A conversão alimentar foi de 1,6 e 1,2; o ganho em peso diário e em comprimento de 0,70 e 0,38 g e 8,01 e 7,27 cm, respectivamente. Estes valores não diferiram entre si. Com os resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que as densidades de estocagem de 1 e 4 peixes/m² podem ser utilizadas no cultivo de alevinos de trairão sem que haja comprometimento no seu desempenho produtivo.
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7. Oral administration of L-arginine decreases blood pressure and increases renal excretion of sodium and water in renovascular hypertensive rats
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research jul 2003, Volume 36 N. 7 Pages 943 - 949
The two-kidney, one-clip renovascular (2K1C) hypertension model is characterized by a reduction in renal flow on the clipped artery that activates the renin-angiotensin system. Endothelium dysfunction, including diminished nitric oxide production, is also believed to play a role in the pathophysiology of this model. Some studies have shown an effect of L-arginine (L-Arg, a nitric oxide precursor) on hypertension. In the present study we determined the ability of L-Arg (7 days of treatment) to reduce blood pressure and alter renal excretions of water, Na+ and K+ in a model of 2K1C-induced hypertension. Under ether anesthesia, male Wistar rats (150-170 g) had a silver clip (0.20 mm) placed around the left renal artery to produce the 2K1C renovascular hypertension model. In the experimental group, the drinking water was replaced with an L-Arg solution (10 mg/ml; average intake of 300 mg/day) from the 7th to the 14th day after surgery. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. At the end of the treatment period, mean blood pressure was measured in conscious animals. The animals were then killed and the kidneys were removed and weighed. There was a significant reduction of mean blood pressure in the L-Arg-treated group when compared to control (129 ± 7 vs 168 ± 6 mmHg, N = 8-10 per group; P<0.05). Concomitantly, a significant enhancement of water and Na+ excretion was observed in the 2K1C L-Arg-treated group when compared to control (water: 13.0 ± 0.7 vs 9.2 ± 0.5 ml/day, P<0.01; Na+: 1.1 ± 0.05 vs 0.8 ± 0.05 mEq/day, respectively, P<0.01). These results show that orally administered L-Arg acts on the kidney, possibly inducing changes in renal hemodynamics or tubular transport due to an increase in nitric oxide formation.
8. Sex hormone modulation of serotonin-induced coronary vasodilation in isolated heart
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research jul 2001, Volume 34 N. 7 Pages 949 - 958
The present study was designed to evaluate the differences in the coronary vasodilator actions of serotonin (5-HT) in isolated heart obtained from naive or castrated male and female rats that were treated with either estrogen or testosterone. Hearts from 12 groups of rats were used: male and female naive animals, castrated, castrated and treated with 17ß-estradiol (0.5 µg kg-1 day-1) for 7 or 30 days, and castrated and treated with testosterone (0.5 mg kg-1 day-1) for 7 or 30 days. After treatment, the vascular reactivity of the coronary bed was evaluated. Baseline coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was determined and dose-response curves to 5-HT were generated. Baseline CPP differed between male (70 ± 6 mmHg, N = 10) and female (115 ± 6 mmHg, N = 12) naive rats. Maximal 5-HT-induced coronary vasodilation was higher (P<0.05) in naive female than in naive male rats. In both sexes, 5-HT produced endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation. After castration, there was no significant difference in baseline CPP between hearts obtained from male and female rats (75 ± 7 mmHg, N = 8, and 83 ± 5 mmHg, N = 8, respectively). Castration reduced the 5-HT-induced maximal vasodilation in female and male rats (P<0.05). Estrogen treatment of castrated female rats restored (P<0.05) the vascular reactivity. In castrated male rats, 30 days of estrogen treatment increased (P<0.05) the responsiveness to 5-HT. The endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilator actions of 5-HT are greater in female rats and are modulated by estrogen. A knowledge of the mechanism of action of estrogen on coronary arteries could aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies and potentially decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease in both sexes.
9. The cardiopulmonary reflexes of spontaneously hypertensive rats are normalized after regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research may 2000, Volume 33 N. 5 Pages 589 - 594
Cardiopulmonary reflexes are activated via changes in cardiac filling pressure (volume-sensitive reflex) and chemical stimulation (chemosensitive reflex). The sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to these stimuli is impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and other models of hypertension and is thought to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy. The present study investigated whether the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary reflexes in SHR is restored when cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension are reduced by enalapril treatment. Untreated SHR and WKY rats were fed a normal diet. Another groups of rats were treated with enalapril (10 mg kg-1 day-1, mixed in the diet; SHRE or WKYE) for one month. After treatment, the volume-sensitive reflex was evaluated in each group by determining the decrease in magnitude of the efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) produced by acute isotonic saline volume expansion. Chemoreflex sensitivity was evaluated by examining the bradycardia response elicited by phenyldiguanide administration. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined from the left ventricular/body weight (LV/BW) ratio. Volume expansion produced an attenuated renal sympathoinhibitory response in SHR as compared to WKY rats. As compared to the levels observed in normotensive WKY rats, however, enalapril treatment restored the volume expansion-induced decrease in RSNA in SHRE. SHR with established hypertension had a higher LV/BW ratio (45%) as compared to normotensive WKY rats. With enalapril treatment, the LV/BW ratio was reduced to 19% in SHRE. Finally, the reflex-induced bradycardia response produced by phenyldiguanide was significantly attenuated in SHR compared to WKY rats. Unlike the effects on the volume reflex, the sensitivity of the cardiac chemosensitive reflex to phenyldiguanide was not restored by enalapril treatment in SHRE. Taken together, these results indicate that the impairment of the volume-sensitive, but not the chemosensitive, reflex can be restored by treatment of SHR with enalapril. It is possible that by augmenting the gain of the volume-sensitive reflex control of RSNA, enalapril contributed to the reversal of cardiac hypertrophy and normalization of arterial blood pressure in SHR.
10. Diverse effects of renal denervation on ventricular hypertrophy and blood pressure in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research apr 1998, Volume 31 N. 4 Pages 587 - 590
Cardiac hypertrophy that accompanies hypertension seems to be a phenomenon of multifactorial origin whose development does not seem to depend on an increased pressure load alone, but also on local growth factors and cardioadrenergic activity. The aim of the present study was to determine if sympathetic renal denervation and its effects on arterial pressure level can prevent cardiac hypertrophy and if it can also delay the onset and attenuate the severity of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. DOCA-salt treatment was initiated in rats seven days after uninephrectomy and contralateral renal denervation or sham renal denervation. DOCA (15 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (soybean oil, 0.25 ml per animal) was administered twice a week for two weeks. Rats treated with DOCA or vehicle (control) were provided drinking water containing 1% NaCl and 0.03% KCl. At the end of the treatment period, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate measurements were made in conscious animals. Under ether anesthesia, the heart was removed and the right and left ventricles (including the septum) were separated and weighed. DOCA-salt treatment produced a significant increase in left ventricular weight/body weight (LVW/BW) ratio (2.44 ± 0.09 mg/g) and right ventricular weight/body weight (RVW/BW) ratio (0.53 ± 0.01 mg/g) compared to control (1.92 ± 0.04 and 0.48 ± 0.01 mg/g, respectively) rats. MAP was significantly higher (39%) in DOCA-salt rats. Renal denervation prevented (P>0.05) the development of hypertension in DOCA-salt rats but did not prevent the increase in LVW/BW (2.27 ± 0.03 mg/g) and RVW/BW (0.52 ± 0.01 mg/g). We have shown that the increase in arterial pressure level is not responsible for cardiac hypertrophy, which may be more related to other events associated with DOCA-salt hypertension, such as an increase in cardiac sympathetic activity
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1998000400018 1695 downloads
11. Neural reflex regulation of arterial pressure in pathophysiological conditions: interplay among the baroreflex, the cardiopulmonary reflexes and the chemoreflex
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research apr 1997, Volume 30 N. 4 Pages 521 - 532
The maintenance of arterial pressure at levels adequate to perfuse the tissues is a basic requirement for the constancy of the internal environment and survival. The objective of the present review was to provide information about the basic reflex mechanisms that are responsible for the moment-to-moment regulation of the cardiovascular system. We demonstrate that this control is largely provided by the action of arterial and non-arterial reflexes that detect and correct changes in arterial pressure (baroreflex), blood volume or chemical composition (mechano- and chemosensitive cardiopulmonary reflexes), and changes in blood-gas composition (chemoreceptor reflex). The importance of the integration of these cardiovascular reflexes is well understood and it is clear that processing mainly occurs in the nucleus tractus solitarii, although the mechanism is poorly understood. There are several indications that the interactions of baroreflex, chemoreflex and Bezold-Jarisch reflex inputs, and the central nervous system control the activity of autonomic preganglionic neurons through parallel afferent and efferent pathways to achieve cardiovascular homeostasis. It is surprising that so little appears in the literature about the integration of these neural reflexes in cardiovascular function. Thus, our purpose was to review the interplay between peripheral neural reflex mechanisms of arterial blood pressure and blood volume regulation in physiological and pathophysiological states. Special emphasis is placed on the experimental model of arterial hypertension induced by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in which the interplay of these three reflexes is demonstrable
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1997000400014 5775 downloads
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