Abstract Atherosclerosis is caused by a monocyte-mediated inflammatory process that, in turn, is stimulated by cytokines and adhesion molecules. Monocytes are then differentiated into macrophages, leading to the formation of arterial atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, guavirova leaf extracts from Campomanesia xanthocarpa (EG) have shown potential effects on the treatment of plaque formation by reducing cholesterol, LDL levels and serum oxidative stress. We evaluated the effect of EG on the viability of human monocytic and endothelial cell lines at three time points (24, 48 and 72 hours) and whether it can modulate the migration and in vitro expression of CD14, PECAM-1, ICAM-1, HLA-DR and CD105. Cell viability was affected only at higher concentrations and times. We observed decreased ICAM-1 expression in cells treated with 50 μg/ml EG and CD14 expression with IFN-γ and without IFN-γ. CD14 also decreased endothelial cell expression in the presence of IFN-γ and GE. We also found decreased expression of PECAM-1 when treated with EG and IFN-γ. In addition, EG-treated endothelial cells showed higher migration than the control group. Reduced expression of these markers and increased migration may lead to decreased cytokines, which may be contributing to decreased chronic inflammatory response during atherosclerosis and protecting endothelial integrity.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) extract (YME) on oxidative stress parameters and pathological changes in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to hand-rolled cornhusk cigarette (HRC) smoke. Twenty-four male Swiss mice were divided into four groups exposed to the following treatments: control (ambient air), HRC, YME, and HRC plus YME. The animals were exposed to four HRCs per session, with 3 sessions/day, every day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last inhalation, the mice were killed, and the left lungs were removed. The results showed that HRC contains elevated levels of tin and carbon oxide, but less arsenic, cobalt, manganese, and selenium than commercial cigarettes. YME administration reversed fibrosis, alveolar enlargement, and hemorrhage induced by HRC smoke. In addition, the YME and HRC significantly reduced the production of oxidants, oxidative damage and promoted a significant increase in total thiol. In conclusion, exposure to HRC smoke compromised pulmonary histoarchitecture by promoting structural changes and increasing oxidative stress in tissues. However, concomitant treatment with YME regulated the redox state and reduced the harmful effects of HRC smoke exposure in the lungs.