Abstract Solidago microglossa is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in traditional Brazilian medicine, and this work evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of the crude ethanolic extract of the flowers of S. microglossa in vivo, as assayed by paw edema models induced by carrageenan, prostaglandin E2, bradykinin and compound 48/80. In the chemical profile, we identified compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and quantified them by HPLC-DAD. Additionally, this study analyzed the potential to activate the in vitro transcriptional activity of PPARγ, which is a nuclear receptor linked to the anti-inflammatory response. It was possible to identify five compounds: quinic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and rutin. In the paw edema evaluation, it was possible to show the potential of reducing edema during the inflammatory process. The crude ethanolic extract of the flowers of S. microglossa activated PPARγ compared to the full agonist rosiglitazone and in a dose-response manner. It is possible to conclude that the extract of the flowers of S. microglossa showed anti-inflammatory activity, and the phenolic compounds present in this species might be responsible for this activity.
ABSTRACT The 1,2-naphthoquinone compound was previously considered active against solid tumors. Moreover, glycosidase inhibitors such as 1,2,3-1H triazoles has been pointed out as efficient compounds in anticancer activity studies. Thus, a series of eleven 1,2-naphthoquinones tethered in C2 to 1,2,3-1H-triazoles 9a-k were designed, synthesized and their cytotoxic activity evaluated using HCT-116 (colon adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and RPE (human nontumor cell line from retinal epithelium). The chemical synthesis was performed from C-3 allylation of lawsone followed by iodocyclization with subsequent nucleophilic displacement with sodium azide and, finally, the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition catalyzed by Cu(I) with terminal alkynes led to the formation of 1H-1,2,3-Triazol-1-ylmethyl-2,3-dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-diones in good yields. Compounds containing aromatic group linked to 1,2,3-triazole ring (9c, 9d, 9e, 9i) presented superior cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines with IC50 in the range of 0.74 to 4.4 µM indicating that the presence of aromatic rings substituents in the 1,2,3-1H-triazole moiety is probably responsible for the improved cytotoxic activity.
Abstract Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most common pathogens leading to mastitis in dairy herds worldwide; consequently, the pathogen causes major economic losses for affected farmers. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), genotypic capsular typing by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and virulence gene detection were performed to address the molecular epidemiology of 59 bovine (mastitis) S. agalactiae isolates from 36 dairy farms located in the largest milk-producing mesoregions in Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, and Pernambuco). We screened for the virulence genes bac, bca, bibA, cfb, hylB, fbsA, fbsB, PI-1, PI-2a, and PI-2b, which are associated with adhesion, invasion, tissue damage, and/or immune evasion. Furthermore, five capsular types were identified (Ia, Ib, II, III, and IV), and a few isolates were classified as non-typeable (NT). MLST revealed the following eight sequence types (STs): ST-61, ST-67, ST-103, ST-146, ST-226, ST-314, and ST-570, which were clustered in five clonal complexes (CC64, CC67, CC103, CC17, and CC314), and one singleton, ST-91. Among the virulence genes screened in this study, PI-2b, fbsB, cfb, and hylB appear to be the most important during mastitis development in cattle. Collectively, these results establish the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae isolated from cows in Brazilian herds. We believe that the data presented here provide a foundation for future research aimed at developing and implementing new preventative and treatment options for mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.
Simple synthetic procedures have been applied to obtain luminescent carbon quantum dots, also referred as C-dots, from an abundant carbon source, that is, from the brewing industry waste. The synthetic procedures have been conducted aiming to investigate the effects of the oxidation stage on the properties of the nanomaterial. C-dots down- and up-conversion properties, as well as their potential for cellular imaging experiments in live (and adhered) cells, are disclosed herein.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Neurofibromatoses (NF) constituem um grupo de doenças genéticas com predisposição ao crescimento de múltiplos tumores: tipo 1 (NF1), tipo 2 (NF2) e schwannomatose (SCH). Estas doenças têm em comum a origem neural dos tumores e os sinais cutâneos. Afetam cerca de 80 mil brasileiros. O maior conhecimento científico sobre as NF tem permitido melhor manejo clínico, redução da morbidade das complicações e melhor qualidade de vida. Na maioria dos casos, os especialistas em neurologia, dermatologia, genética clínica, oncologia e medicina interna estão capacitados a realizar o diagnóstico diferencial e identificar suas principais complicações. Devido à sua variabilidade fenotípica, curso progressivo, multiplicidade de órgãos acometidos e evolução imprevisível, as NF frequentemente necessitam de especialistas em NF para o acompanhamento. A Parte 1 deste texto oferece orientações para o diagnóstico de cada tipo de NF e discute os diagnósticos diferenciais com outras doenças. A Parte 2 oferecerá orientações em relação ao manejo clínico das NF.
Neurofibromatoses (NF) are a group of genetic multiple tumor growing predisposition diseases: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and schwannomatosis (SCH), which have in common the neural origin of tumors and cutaneous signs. They affect nearly 80 thousand of Brazilians. In recent years, the increased scientific knowledge on NF has allowed better clinical management and reduced complication morbidity, resulting in higher quality of life for NF patients. In most cases, neurology, psychiatry, dermatology, clinical geneticists, oncology and internal medicine specialists are able to make the differential diagnosis between NF and other diseases and to identify major NF complications. Nevertheless, due to its great variability in phenotype expression, progressive course, multiple organs involvement and unpredictable natural evolution, NF often requires the support of neurofibromatoses specialists for proper treatment and genetic counseling. This Part 1 offers step-by-step guidelines for NF differential diagnosis. Part 2 will present the NF clinical management.
A reação de esterificação catalisada por lípases foi investigada através da utilização de irradiação de microondas e aquecimento convencional com a finalidade de avaliar a presença de efeitos não térmicos de microondas na síntese de biodisel. Todas as reações foram conduzidas em equipamentos dedicados a síntese orgânica como Monowave 300 e CEM Discover, a 40 ºC e com controle interno da temperatura reacional através do uso de sondas de fibra ótica. Os experimentos sob aquecimento convencional foram realizados em reator automatizado EasyMaxTM (Mettler-Toledo) que também permite o controle da temperatura interna do meio reacional. Os resultados obtidos mostram que não há diferença entre a reação conduzida sob irradiação de microondas e aquecimento convencional, diferentemente do apontado em alguns relatos da literatura.
The esterification reaction mediated by lipases was investigated applying both microwave irradiation and conventional heating in order to evaluate the existence of nonthermal microwave effects on the biodiesel synthesis. All transformations were conducted at 40ºC in both Monowave 300 and CEM Discover instruments that allowed accurate internal reaction temperature measurements with use of fiber-optic probes. The conventional heating experiment was performed in an EasyMaxTM reactor (Mettler-Toledo), which also allowed accurate measurement of the internal temperature. The results revealed no difference on the reaction time or yield, differently than indicated by some results in the literature.
Anaplasma marginale is an important vector-borne rickettsia of ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Immunization with purified outer membranes of this organism induces protection against acute anaplasmosis. Previous studies, with proteomic and genomic approach identified 21 proteins within the outer membrane immunogen in addition to previously characterized major surface protein1a-5 (MSP1a-5). Among the newly described proteins were VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu). VirB9, VirB10 are considered part of the type IV secretion system (TFSS), which mediates secretion or cell-to-cell transfer of macromolecules, proteins, or DNA-protein complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. EF-Tu can be located in the bacterial surface, mediating bacterial attachment to host cells, or in the bacterial cytoplasm for protein synthesis. However, the roles of VirB9, VirB10, and TFSS in A. marginale have not been defined. VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu have not been explored as vaccine antigens. In this study, we demonstrate that sera of cattle infected with A. marginale, with homologous or heterologous isolates recognize recombinant VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu. IgG2 from naturally infected cattle also reacts with these proteins. Recognition of epitopes by total IgG and by IgG2 from infected cattle with A. marginale support the inclusion of these proteins in recombinant vaccines against this rickettsia.