ABSTRACT: This study identified the effects of dietary supplementation with ractopamine, chromium picolinate, chromium yeast, or an energetic feed restriction on the growth performance and lipid profile of subcutaneous fat, in late finishing gilts. Twenty genetically similar gilts with initial body weight of 105.35 ± 4.77 kg and a final body weight of 131.37 ± 5.58 kg were distributed in a completely randomized block design with five treatments (control; ractopamine: 20 ppm; chromium picolinate: 0.48 ppm; chromium yeast: 0.80 ppm; and energetic feed restriction: -150 kcal kg-1 of metabolizable energy), with four replicates of one animal each. The experimental diets were isonutritives, except for the metabolizable energy level of the diet fed to the group subjected to energy restriction. There were no effects on the growth performance and carcass characteristics. Ractopamine and organic chromium (picolinate and yeast) supplementation increased the concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acid. The proportion of α-linolenic fatty acids were higher when the diets were supplemented with ractopamine or chromium yeast. The energy restriction increased the n-6:n-3 ratio and reduced α-linolenic acid concentration. Therefore, ractopamine, chromium picolinate, chromium yeast supplementation, and energetic feed restriction did not affect the growth performance or carcass characteristics but altered the lipid profile of subcutaneous fat in finishing gilts. Ractopamine and organic chromium supplementation increased PUFA in the fat of finishing female pigs.
RESUMO: Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de identificar os efeitos da suplementação com ractopamina, cromo picolinato, cromo levedura, ou da restrição alimentar energética, sobre o desempenho e o perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura subcutânea de fêmeas suínas em fase final de terminação. Foram utilizadas 20 fêmeas suínas, geneticamente similares, com peso inicial de 105,35 ± 4,77 kg e peso final de 131,37 ± 5,58 kg, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em cinco tratamentos (controle; ractopamina: 20 ppm; picolinato de cromo: 0,48 ppm; cromo levedura: 0,80 ppm; e restrição energética: -150 kcal kg-1 de energia metabolizável) com quatro repetições de um animal cada. As dietas experimentais foram isonutritivas, exceto para o nível de energia metabolizável da dieta fornecida ao grupo submetido à restrição energética. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça. As suplementações com ractopamina e cromo orgânico (picolinato ou levedura) aumentaram a concentração de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados. A proporção do ácido α-linolênico foi maior com a inclusão da ractopamina ou do cromo levedura na dieta. A restrição energética aumentou a proporção n-6:n-3 e reduziu a concentração do ácido α-linolênico. As suplementações com ractopamina, picolinato de cromo, cromo levedura, ou restrição alimentar energética, não influenciaram o desempenho e as características de carcaça, mas alteraram o perfil lipídico da gordura subcutânea de fêmeas suínas. As suplementações com ractopamina e cromo orgânico aumentaram a proporção de AGPI.
Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the period of chromium yeast supplementation on lipid profile of backfat and Longissimus lumborum muscle of barrows. It was evaluated carcass samples from forty barrows, genetically similar. Pigs diets were supplemented with 0.4 mg kg-1 of chromium yeast in four periods (0, 38, 62 and 94 days before slaughter). The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments, ten replicates, and each experimental unit consisting of one animal. Lipid profiles of backfat and Longissimus lumborum muscle were analyzed by gas chromatography. The increase in the period of chromium yeast use had a quadratic effect (P<0.05) for stearic and oleic fatty acids, and total saturated, monounsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids in backfat. DH-γ-linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids reduced when the period of chromium yeast use increased. In the meat, there was a quadratic effect (P<0.05) only in the γ-linoleic fatty acid. The use of chromium yeast for different periods influences the lipid profile of the backfat and the Longissimus lumborum muscle, with less effect in the meat.
Abstract This study aimed at assessing the relationship between dental pain and the reason for using dental services and oral health quality of life in people aged 50 to 74 years in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 720 individuals aged 50 to 74 years, living in three health districts in the city of Porto Alegre. Dental impacts on daily life and sociodemographic data were assessed using structured interviews. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance – OIDP instrument was used to measure oral impacts. The information was analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment, taking into account cluster sampling. Dental pain was present in 32.5% of those reporting an oral impact on their daily activities. Dental pain most frequently affected talking (37.6%), cleaning teeth and gums (37.0%) and enjoying the companionship of people (36.5%). After adjustments to the multivariate analysis, the reason for dental visits due to dental pain was found to have a high impact on daily activities [RP 1.68 (1.11 - 2.54].
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Sense of Coherence (SOC) and oral health clinical variables (number of teeth present and absence of need for dental prostheses). The sample consisted of 720 adults and elderly Brazilians. The data were collected at home using the SOC-13 scale – a form of clinical examination for the evaluation of oral conditions – and a questionnaire evaluating socioeconomic aspects and the use of dental services. Statistical analysis, both univariate and multivariate, was performed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment. The average age of the participants was 60.2 years, and they were predominantly female (57.8%). Among the participants who had a strong SOC, the absence of the need for dental prostheses was 34% higher than among those with a weak SOC, demonstrating a significant difference between the groups (PR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.06–1.70; p = 0.015). Individuals who had a strong SOC had a 5% higher prevalence of 14 or more existing teeth than those with a weak SOC, which was statistically significant after adjustment for co-factors (PR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.01–1.11, p = 0.033). A strong personal Sense of Coherence has a beneficial influence on the oral health of adults and older people in Brazil.