Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a group of rare and inherited metabolic disorders caused by the accumulation of macromolecule glycosaminoglycans inside lysosomes. Affected individuals may have dental and craniofacial tissue alterations, facilitating the development of several oral diseases. Objectives To assess, with panoramic radiographic images, the frequency of dental and maxillomandibular incidental findings among MPS individuals and compare them with non-MPS individuals. Methodology A cross-sectional study evaluating a sample of 14 MPS individuals and 28 non-MPS individuals aged from 5 to 26 years was carried out. They were matched for sex and age on a 2:1 proportion. Panoramic radiographs were assessed for the presence/absence of the following dental and maxillomandibular alterations: dental anomalies of number (hypodontia/dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth); anomalies of form (microdontia, macrodontia, conoid teeth, taurodontism, and root dilaceration); anomalies of position (impacted tooth, inverted tooth, tooth migration, partially bony teeth, complete bony teeth); periapical alterations (furcation lesion, circumscribed bone rarefaction); other alterations (radiolucent bone lesions, radiopaque bone lesions, radiopacity in the maxillary sinus, condylar hypoplasia). Differences between groups were tested by the Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test (p<0.05). Results For intrarater agreement, Kappa values were 0.76 to 0.85. The presence of supernumerary teeth (p=0.003); conoid teeth (p=0.009); taurodontism (p<0.001); impacted teeth (p<0.001); partial bony teeth (p=0.040); complete bony teeth (p=0.013); and root dilaceration (p=0.047) were statistically more frequent in MPS individuals compared to non-MPS individuals. Bone rarefaction/furcation lesions (p=0.032), condylar hypoplasia (p<0.001), radiolucent bone lesions (p=0.001), and dentigerous cysts (p=0.002) were also more frequent in MPS individuals. Conclusion The presence of specific oral manifestations is more common in MPS individuals than non-MPS individuals.
Abstract Solidago microglossa is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in traditional Brazilian medicine, and this work evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of the crude ethanolic extract of the flowers of S. microglossa in vivo, as assayed by paw edema models induced by carrageenan, prostaglandin E2, bradykinin and compound 48/80. In the chemical profile, we identified compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and quantified them by HPLC-DAD. Additionally, this study analyzed the potential to activate the in vitro transcriptional activity of PPARγ, which is a nuclear receptor linked to the anti-inflammatory response. It was possible to identify five compounds: quinic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and rutin. In the paw edema evaluation, it was possible to show the potential of reducing edema during the inflammatory process. The crude ethanolic extract of the flowers of S. microglossa activated PPARγ compared to the full agonist rosiglitazone and in a dose-response manner. It is possible to conclude that the extract of the flowers of S. microglossa showed anti-inflammatory activity, and the phenolic compounds present in this species might be responsible for this activity.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of 20% glycolic ginger extract on the bond strength of glass-fiber post cemented with etch-and-rinse or self-etching resin cement. Forty-eight bovine roots were standardized (17±0.5 mm) and randomly divided into two groups, according to irrigant used during biomechanical preparation: NaOCl: 1% sodium hypochlorite and GEN: 20% glycolic ginger extract. Root canal was prepared and randomly assigned to one of two subgroups (n=12), according to luting protocol: self-etching (RelyX U200) and etch-and-rinse (RelyX ARC). After 48 h, the roots were sectioned perpendicularly (4 in cervical third and 3 in middle third) and submitted to push-out bond strength test (50 kgf load cell, 1.0 mm/min). Failure mode was analyzed in SEM and stereomicroscopy. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences between U200 (2.01±0.17)B and ARC (1.93±0.12)B in GEN group, and at the cervical third for both irrigants, 2.69±0.16A and 2.54±0.17A, respectively. Middle third showed lower bond strength than cervical third, regardless the irrigant. Overall, the cervical third regardless the irrigant employed and the association between NaOCl and ARC, presented better adhesive performance.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a influência do extrato de gengibre 20% na resistência adesiva de pinos de fibra de vidro cimentados com cimentos resinosos convencional ou autocondicionantes. Quarenta e oito raízes bovinas foram padronizadas (17±0.5mm) e aleatoriamente divididas em dois grupos (n=24), de acordo com o irrigante utilizado durante o preparo biomecânico: NaOCl: hipoclorito de sódio 1%; e GEN: extrato glicólico de gengibre 20%. Os canais radiculares foram preparados e aleatoriamente distribuídos em dois subgrupos (n=12), conforme o protocolo de cimentação: autocondicionante (RelyX U200) e convencional (RelyX ARC). Após 48 h, as raízes foram seccionadas perpendicularmente (4 no terço cervical e 3 no terço médio) e submetidas ao teste de resistência adesiva push-out (50 kgf carga, 1.0 mm/min). O modo de falha foi analisado em MEV e estereomicroscopia. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA 3-fatores e Tukey (p<0.05). ANOVA mostrou que não houve diferenças significativas entre U200 (2.01±0.17)B e ARC (1.93±0.12)B no grupo GEN, e no terço cervical para ambos os irrigantes (2.69±0.16A and 2.54±0.17A, respectivamente). O terço médio apresentou menor resistência adesiva que o terço cervical, independente do irrigante. Em geral, o terço cervical, independentemente do irrigante empregado, e a associação entre NaOCl e ARC apresentaram melhores desempenhos adesivos.
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
Acoustic rhinometry is routinely used for the evaluation of nasal patency. Objective: To investigate whether the technique is able to identify the impairment of velopharyngeal (VP) activity in individuals with clinical diagnosis of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Methods: Twenty subjects with repaired cleft palate and inadequate velopharyngeal function (IVF) and 18 non-cleft controls with adequate velopharyngeal function (AVF), adults, of both genders, were evaluated. Area-distance curves were obtained during VP rest and speech activity, using an Eccovision Acoustic Rhinometry system. Volume was determined by integrating the area under the curve at the segment corresponding to the nasopharynx. VP activity (ΔV) was estimated by the absolute and relative differences between nasopharyngeal volume at rest (Vr) and during an unreleased /k/ production (Vk). The efficiency of the technique to discriminate IVF and AVF was assessed by a ROC curve. Results: Mean Vk and Vr values (±SD) obtained were: 23.2±3.6 cm3 and 15.9±3.8 cm3 (AVF group), and 22.7±7.9 cm3 and 20.7±7.4 cm3 (IVF group), corresponding to a mean ΔV decay of 7.3 cm3 (31%) for the AVF group and a significantly smaller ΔV decay of 2.0 cm3 (9%) for the IVF group (p<0.05). Seventy percent of the IVF individuals showed a ΔV suggesting impaired VP function (below the cutoff score of 3.0 cm3 which maximized both sensitivity and specificity of the test), confirming clinical diagnosis. Conclusion: Acoustic rhinometry was able to identify, with a good discriminatory power, the impairment of VP activity which characterizes VPI.