Resumo Introdução O tratamento da doença periodontal em dentes multirradiculares com envolvimento de furca tem sido um desafio para os cirurgiões-dentistas, com resultados imprevisíveis. Objetivo Avaliar as características da ponta ativa de curetas periodontais utilizadas para raspagem do teto de furca, comparando o método manual versus digital. Material e método Foram avaliadas 42 curetas de Pádua Lima (PL) da marca Millennium® (n=6 para cada modelo): PL 1-2, PL 3-4, PL 5-6, PLW 1-2, PLW 3-4, PLW 5-6 e PLF. Foram mensurados: comprimento total da face coronária (CTc, milímetros, mm), comprimento total da face lateral (CTl, mm), largura da face coronária (Lc, mm) e largura da face lateral (Ll, mm). As mensurações foram em duplicata. Resultado Os resultados mostraram que o peso variou entre as curetas (p<0,05), porém o diâmetro do cabo foi semelhante para todos os instrumentos (p>0,05). Considerando que foram avaliados sete tipos de curetas diferentes, os parâmetros de CTl e Ll se mostraram com diferença estatística para todas as curetas avaliadas (proporção 7:7), com valores maiores para o método do paquímetro em comparação ao software (p<0,05). Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre métodos de avaliação para as medidas de CTc e de Lc (p<0,05), mostrando que houve uma coincidência de valores na proporção de 4:7 para as mensurações de CTc e de 5:7 para Lc. Conclusão A comparação entre métodos resultou, em geral, menores valores e maior variação para o método digital, favorecendo, dessa forma, o uso do método manual para a mensuração da ponta ativa de curetas periodontais.
Abstract Introduction The treatment of periodontal disease in multiradicular teeth with furcation involvement is a challenge for dentists, with unpredictable results. Objective To evaluate the characteristics of the active tip of periodontal curettes used for scaling the furcation roof, comparing the manual versus digital method. Material and method Forty-two Pádua Lima (PL) curettes of the Millennium® brand (n = 6 for each model) were evaluated: PL 1-2, PL 3-4, PL 5-6, PLW 1-2, PLW 3-4, PLW 5 -6, and PLF. The following were measured: total length of the coronary face (CTc, millimeters, mm), total length of the lateral face (CTl, mm), width of the coronary face (Lc, mm), and width of the lateral face (Ll, mm). The measurements were performed in duplicate. Result The results showed that weight varied among the curettes (p <0.05), however the handle diameter was similar for all instruments (p> 0.05). Considering that seven different types of curettes were evaluated, the parameters of CTl and Ll showed a statistical difference for all evaluated curettes (7: 7 ratio), with higher values for the caliper method compared to the software (p <0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between assessment methods for CTc and Lc measurements (p <0.05), showing that there was a coincidence of values in the proportion of 4:7 for measurements of CTc and 5:7 for Lc. Conclusion The comparison between methods generally resulted in lower values and greater variation for the digital method, thus favoring the use of the manual method to measure the active tip of periodontal curettes.
Abstract Introduction The periodontal probe is the best tool for the clinical diagnosis of periodontal disease; however the probe design can influence the results. Objective To evaluate the structural characteristics of Williams-type periodontal probes available in the Brazilian market and evaluate their clinical use during periodontal probing. Material and method The probe groups were divided into: 1) Hu-Friedy® (n=15); 2) Trinity® (n=15); 3) Fava® (n=15); 4) Millennium® (n=15). In vitro analyzes were performed: weight (g), diameter of the active tip (mm), cable diameter (mm) and millimeter of the probes (mm). For the in vivo study, 10 participants were selected who had at least four teeth with periodontitis. The probe marks were coded in A, B, C and D for the examiner's blinding. Result There was a diameter of the active tip suggestive of a conical three-dimensional shape for the Trinity®, Hu-Friedy® and Millennium®, with increasing taper, while the Fava® tip demonstrated a suggestive diameter of a cylindrical / parallel three-dimensional shape. The Fava® probe showed the largest diameters in the initial and middle thirds, while the Hu-Friedy® revealed the smallest diameter in the initial third. All the probes presented similar milimeter. In the clinical study, it was found that the Fava® probe resulted in a lower average of probing depth than the others. Conclusion Periodontal probes have structural differences that must be considered during the selection of the instrument, and the conical probes present more reliable results to clinical practice, since the design of the probe directly interferes with the clinical diagnosis of periodontal disease.
Resumo Introdução A sonda periodontal é a melhor ferramenta para o diagnóstico clínico da doença periodontal, porém o desenho da sonda pode influenciar nos resultados. Objetivo Avaliar as características estruturais de sondas periodontais do tipo Williams disponíveis no mercado brasileiro e avaliar sua utilização clínica durante a sondagem periodontal. Material e método Os grupos de sondas foram divididos em: 1) Hu-Friedy® (n = 15); 2) Trinity® (n = 15); 3) Fava® (n = 15); 4) Millennium® (n = 15). Foram avaliados in vitro: peso (g), diâmetro da ponta ativa (mm), diâmetro do cabo (mm) e milimetragem das sondas (mm). Para o estudo in vivo, foram selecionados 10 participantes que apresentavam pelo menos quatro dentes com periodontite. As marcas de sondas foram codificadas em A, B, C e D para o cegamento do examinador. Resultado Verificou-se um diâmetro da ponta ativa sugestivo de forma tridimensional cônica para as marcas Trinity®, Hu-Friedy® e Millennium®, com conicidade crescente, enquanto a marca Fava® revelou forma tridimensional cilíndrico/paralelo. A sonda Fava® apresentou os maiores diâmetros nos terços inicial e médio, enquanto a Hu-Friedy® revelou menor diâmetro no terço inicial. Todas as sondas apresentaram milimetragem similar. No estudo clínico, verificou-se que a sonda Fava® resultou em menor média de profundidade de sondagem do que às demais. Conclusão As sondas periodontais apresentam diferenças estruturais que devem ser consideradas durante a seleção do instrumento, sendo que as sondas cônicas apresentam resultados mais confiáveis à prática clínica, pois o desenho da sonda interfere diretamente no diagnóstico clínico da doença periodontal.
Abstract Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the most important Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an arsenal of specialized virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. Among them, fimbriae play a role in the initial attachment and organization of biofilms. Different genotypes of fimA have been related to length of fimbriae and pathogenicity of the bacterium. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify 5 types of fimA genotype strains in smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis, before and after periodontal therapy. Material and Methods Thirty-one patients with periodontitis harboring P. gingivalis were selected: 16 nonsmokers (NS) and 15 smokers (SM). Clinical and microbiological parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment, namely: plaque index, bleeding on probe, probing depth, gingival recession and clinical attachment level. The frequency of P. gingivalis and fimA genotype strains were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results Type I fimA was detected in the majority of SM and NS at baseline, and the frequency did not diminish after 3 months of treatment. The frequency of type II genotype was higher in SM than NS at baseline. After 3 months, statistical reduction was observed only for types II and V fimA genotypes in SM. The highest association was found between types I and II at baseline for NS (37.5%) and SM (53.3%). Conclusion The most prevalent P. gingivalis fimA genotypes detected in periodontal and smoker patients were genotypes I and II. However, the presence of fimA genotype II was higher in SM. Periodontal treatment was effective in controlling periodontal disease and reducing type II and V P. gingivalis fimA.
Abstract Pulpal and periodontal tissues have similar microbiota that allows cross-contamination between the pulp and periodontal tissues. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of isolated Candida albicans from periodontal endodontic lesions in diabetic and normoglycemic patients, and the fungi's virulence in different atmospheric conditions. Material and Methods A case-control study was conducted on 15 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (G1) and 15 non-diabetics (G2) with periodontal endodontic lesions. Samples of root canals and periodontal pockets were plated on CHROMagar for later identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virulence test. Results C. albicans was identified in 79.2% and 20.8% of the 60 samples collected from diabetic and normoglycemic patients, respectively. Of the 30 samples collected from periodontal pockets, 13 showed a positive culture for C. albicans, with 77% belonging to G1 and 23% to G2. Of the 11 positive samples from root canals, 82% were from G1 and 18% from G2. Production of proteinase presented a precipitation zone Pz<0.63 of 100% in G1 and 72% in G2, in redox and negative (Pz=1), under anaerobic conditions in both groups. Hydrophobicity of the strains from G1 indicated 16.4% with low, 19.3% with moderate, and 64.3% with high hydrophobicity in redox. In G2, 42.2% had low, 39.8% had moderate, 18% had high hydrophobicity in redox. In anaerobic conditions, G1 showed 15.2% with low, 12.8% with moderate, and 72% with high hydrophobicity; in G2, 33.6% had low, 28.8% had moderate, and 37.6% had high hydrophobicity. There was statistical difference in the number of positive cultures between G1 and G2 (p<0.05) with predominance in G1. There was statistical difference for all virulence factors, except hemolysis (p=0.001). Conclusions Candida albicans was isolated more frequently and had higher virulence in diabetic patients.
Abstract This study aimed to assess the performance of surgeons in determining the amount of graft material required for maxillary sinus floor augmentation in a preoperative analysis using cone-beam computed tomography images. A convenience sample of 10 retrospective CBCT exams (i-CAT®) was selected. Scans of the posterior maxilla area with an absence of at least one tooth and residual alveolar bone with an up to 5 mm height were used. Templates (n=20) contained images of representative cross-sections in multiplanar view. Ten expert surgeons voluntarily participated as appraisers of the templates for grafting surgical planning of a 10 mm long implant. Appraisers could choose a better amount of graft material using scores: 0) when considered grafting unnecessary, 1) for 0.25 g in graft material, 2) for 0.50 g, 3) for 1.00 g and 4) for 1.50 g or more. Reliability of the response pattern was analyzed using Cronbach’s a. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare scores. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether the volume of sinuses (mm3) influenced the choose of scores. In the reliability analysis, all values were low and the score distribution was independent of the volume of the maxillary sinuses (p>0.05), which did not influence choosing the amount of graft material. Surgeons were unreliable to determine the best amount of graft material for the maxillary sinus floor augmentation using only CBCT images. Surgeons require auxiliary diagnostic tools to measure the volume associated to CBCT exams in order to perform better.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho dos cirurgiões na determinação da quantidade de material de enxerto necessária para a elevação do assoalho do seio maxilar em uma análise pré-operatória, utilizando imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico. Foi selecionada uma amostra de conveniência de 10 exames retrospectivos CBCT (i-CAT®). Os exames foram da área da maxila posterior que possuíam ausência de pelo menos um dente e com osso alveolar residual de altura igual ou inferior a 5 mm. Os templates (n=20) continham imagens de secções transversais representativas numa vista multiplanar. Dez experientes cirurgiões voluntariamente participaram como avaliadores dos templates para o planejamento cirúrgico de enxerto para um implante de 10 mm de comprimento. Os avaliadores escolheram a melhor quantidade de material de enxerto usando os escores: 0) quando o enxerto era desnecessário, 1) para 0,25 g de enxerto, 2) para 0,50 g, 3) para 1,00 g, e 4) para 1,50 g ou mais. A confiabilidade do padrão de resposta foi analisada utilizando a a de Cronbach. Os testes de Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney foram utilizados para comparar os escores. A análise de regressão foi realizada para avaliar se o volume dos seios (mm3) influenciou a escolha dos escores. Na análise de confiabilidade, todos os valores foram baixos e a distribuição dos escores foi independente do volume dos seios maxilares (p>0,05), o que não influenciou a escolha da quantidade de material de enxerto. Os cirurgiões apresentaram falta de confiabilidade ao determinar a melhor quantidade de material de enxerto para o aumento do assoalho do seio maxilar utilizando somente as imagens de TCFC. Assim, os cirurgiões necessitam de ferramentas de diagnóstico auxiliares para mensuração de volume associada à TCFC para um melhor desempenho.
Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of periodontal pathogens, systemic inflammatory mediators and lipid profiles in type 1 diabetes children (DM) with those observed in children without diabetes (NDM), both with gingivitis. Material and methods Twenty-four DM children and twenty-seven NDM controls were evaluated. The periodontal status, glycemic and lipid profiles were determined for both groups. Subgingival samples of periodontal sites were collected to determine the prevalence of periodontal microorganisms by PCR. Blood samples were collected for IL-1-β, TNF-α and IL-6 analysis using ELISA kits. Results Periodontal conditions of DM and NDM patients were similar, without statistical differences in periodontal indices. When considering patients with gingivitis, all lipid parameters evaluated were highest in the DM group; Capnocytophaga sputigena and Capnocytophaga ochracea were more prevalent in the periodontal sites of DM children. “Red complex” bacteria were detected in few sites of DM and NDM groups. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Campylobacter rectus were frequently found in both groups. Similar levels of IL-1-β, TNF-α and IL-6 were detected in DM and NDM children. Conclusion Clinical and immunological profiles are similar between DM and NDM children. The presence of Capnocytophaga sputigena and Capnocytophaga ochracea were associated with gingivitis in DM children.
Abstract This pilot study aimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on clinical and microbiological parameters after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Forty-eight subjects were grouped into smokers (SM, n = 24) and nonsmokers (NS, n = 24) and paired according to gender, age, ethnicity, and periodontal status. Both groups received oral hygiene education and scaling and root planing. Clinical evaluation was performed using plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD), gingival recession (GR), and clinical attachment level (CAL) before instrumentation (baseline) and at 3 and 6 months. The prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis in subgingival biofilm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The data were statistically analyzed considering p < 0.05. Clinical conditions improved between baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment. However, NS had a better clinical response, presenting greater PPD reduction and CAL increase in comparison to SM. Periodontal treatment reduced the levels of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and T. forsythia individually after 3 months for the NS group and after 6 months for both groups. The prevalence of Candida species was markedly higher in SM than in NS at all time points evaluated. Periodontopathogens associated or not with C. albicans or C. dubliniensis were more prevalent in SM than in NS at baseline and after 3 months. It was concluded that smoking impairs clinical and microbiological responses to periodontal therapy. Periodontopathogens combined or not with some Candida species are resistant to short-term periodontal therapy in SM.