Abstract This research was implemented in the Colombian Amazon forest area; to assess the effect of Tween-80® surfactant in the degradation of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in bioremediation treatments under aerobic conditions in the laboratory and pilot-scale. One control treatment, Natural Attenuation (AT) and four biostimulation treatments with leonardite with four different dosages of Tween-80® were proposed. The efficacy of organic stimulators and nonionic surfactant in soil microbiota was studied at laboratory and pilot scales, the latter in a passive aeration reactor. The test that presented a better performance was carried out with a Convective Flow Reactor (CFR) at pilot-scale. The results showed that bioremediation strategies improved the natural degradation process; the best outcomes were obtained in a treatment that includes Leonardite and Tween-80® (1.5 g/L) with 52% TPH degradation in 80 days (d).Tween-80® produced an effect in TPH solubility, and increased the production of CO2 in distinctive bioremediation treatments in both periods. The kinetics of CO2 production showed that the system required a periodic addition of a co-substrate as well as an increase of soil microbiota through the addition of compost (pilot scale). In this stage more than 76% of contaminant was degraded in 60d.
To study the potential for the emergence of resistance in Aedes aegypti populations, a wild colony was subjected to selective pressure with Cry11Aa, one of four endotoxins that compose the Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis toxin. This bacterium is the base component of the most important biopesticide used in the control of mosquitoes worldwide. After 54 generations of selection, significant resistance levels were observed. At the beginning of the selection experiment, the half lethal concentration was 26.3 ng/mL and had risen to 345.6 ng/mL by generation 54. The highest rate of resistance, 13.1, was detected in the 54th generation. Because digestive proteases play a key role in the processing and activation of B. thuringiensis toxin, we analysed the involvement of insect gut proteases in resistance to the Cry11Aa B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis toxin. The protease activity from larval gut extracts from the Cry11Aa resistant population was lower than that of the B. thuringiensisserovar israelensis susceptible colony. We suggest that differences in protoxin proteolysis could contribute to the resistance of this Ae. aegypti colony.