ABSTRACT: In Brazil, atrazine (ATZ) is widely applied to maize (Zea mays L.) fields for weed control. The presence of ATZ and its metabolites in soil and water matrices has become a matter of some concern for governmental authorities as well as for society at large. This study evaluated the patterns of ATZ degradation (mineralization, extractable and non-extractable ATZ residues, and metabolite formation) in a Brazilian Typic Paleudult. Soil samples from a cultivated area under a no-tillage system with a history of ATZ application were incubated with 14C-ATZ in both the presence and absence of straw cover on the soil surface, and the evolved 14CO2 was determined by liquid scintillation. Samples from an area with native vegetation, adjacent to the cultivated area, were also incubated as a control. A higher mineralization of ATZ was observed in the cultivated soil (> 85 %) in comparison with the native soil (10 %) after 85 days of incubation. In addition to the higher mineralization and hydroxyatrazine (HA) formation, a rapid decrease in the water-extractable residues was observed in the cultivated soil. When the cultivated soil was covered with straw, mineralization was reduced by up to 30 % although a small amount of remobilization to the soil occurred within the 85 days. Straw cover hindered the degradation of ATZ in cultivated soils; whereas an accelerated biodegradation was due to repeated applications of ATZ, which may have selected microbiota more skilled at biodegrading the herbicide.
The purpose of this study was to separate homogeneous regions and to estimate the numbers of years necessary to evaluate the variables: sunshine, global solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation in Sao Paulo State. Monthly data of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for 18 places in Sao Paulo State were used in the analysis. The homogeneity of the variances among the months for the 18 places (seasonal variability) and the homogeneity of variances among places in each month (spatial variability) were tested by the test of homogeneity of Bartlett. In addition, the sample size for each place was calculated during the year. The results show the existence of seasonal and spatial variability in the estimates of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for the 18 cities evaluated in Sao Paulo State. Moreover, the variability of the sample size for sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation depend on the site and season of the year in Sao Paulo State.
Os objetivos deste trabalho foram demarcar regiões homogêneas e estimar o número de anos de avaliações para as variáveis insolação, radiação solar global e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para o Estado de São Paulo. Utilizaram-se dados da média mensal de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa de 18 locais do Estado de São Paulo. A homogeneidade das variâncias entre os meses do ano para os 18 locais (variabilidade temporal) e a homogeneidade das variâncias entre os locais em cada mês (variabilidade espacial) foram testadas pelo teste de homogeneidade de Bartlett. Estimou-se o tamanho de amostra para cada local durante o ano. Como resultados há variabilidade temporal e espacial para as estimativas de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para os 18 municípios avaliados. Além disso, a variabilidade do tamanho de amostra para a insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa depende do local e da época do ano no Estado de São Paulo.