ABSTRACT Purpose This study aims to characterize the orofacial myofunctional profile of patients with sleep disorders and to relate them to the severity of the polysomnography result. Methods A cross-sectional, field study of patients referred to polysomnography with a random sample of adult patients of both genders complaining of snoring who were not receiving any form of treatment for sleep disorder. An anthroposcopic speech-language evaluation was performed and the results of the polysomnography examination were collected in order to respond to the objectives of the study. Results There was a significant association between the severity of the sleep disorder and environmental variables, such as smoking and alcoholism; also with individual characteristics, such as race, body mass index, waist circumference and systemic arterial hypertension. From the point of view of the myofunctional characteristics, there was a positive relationship between the severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Syndrome with mental muscle contraction, Mallampati class, tongue dorsum elevation, tongue thickness, uvula characteristics, extension and mobility of the soft palate, and alteration in the respiratory pattern. Conclusion This study made it possible to describe a trend of the existence of orofacial myofunctional alterations in individuals with Sleep Apnea and Obstructive Hypopnea Syndrome and also revealed that the greater the degree of impairment of orofacial structures, the greater the degree of disturbance is also revealed.
RESUMO Objetivo Este trabalho se propõe a caracterizar o perfil miofuncional orofacial de pacientes com distúrbios do sono e relacionar esses com a gravidade do resultado da polissonografia. Método Estudo transversal, de campo, realizado com pacientes encaminhados para polissonografia, com amostra aleatória, composta por pacientes adultos, de ambos os gêneros, com queixa de ronco e que não estivessem recebendo alguma forma de tratamento para o distúrbio do sono. Foi realizada avaliação fonoaudiológica antroposcópica e coletado o resultado do exame de polissonografia, a fim de responder aos objetivos do trabalho. Resultados Verificou-se associação significativa entre a gravidade do distúrbio de sono e variáveis ambientais, tais como tabagismo e etilismo; também com características individuais, tais como raça, índice de massa corporal, circunferência abdominal e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Do ponto de vista das características miofuncionais, verificou-se relação positiva entre a gravidade da Síndrome da Apneia e Hipopneia Obstrutiva do Sono com a contração do músculo mentual, classe de Mallampati, elevação de dorso de língua, espessura de língua, características da úvula, extensão e mobilidade de palato mole, e alteração no padrão respiratório. Conclusão A pesquisa possibilitou descrever uma tendência da existência de alterações miofuncionais orofaciais em indivíduos com Síndrome da Apneia e Hipopneia Obstrutiva do Sono e revelou, ainda, que quanto maior o grau de comprometimento das estruturas orofaciais, maior também se revela o grau do distúrbio.
Abstract Introduction In Brazil, estimates show that 14.7% of the adult population smokes, and changes in smell and taste arising from tobacco consumption are largely present in this population, which is an aggravating factor to these dysfunctions. Objectives The objective of this study is to systematically review the findings in the literature about the influence of smoking on smell and taste. Data Synthesis Our research covered articles published from January 1980 to August 2014 in the following databases: MEDLINE (accessed through PubMed), LILACS, Cochrane Library, and SciELO.We conducted separate lines of research: one concerning smell and the other, taste. We analyzed all the articles that presented randomized controlled studies involving the relation between smoking and smell and taste. Articles that presented unclear methodologies and those whose main results did not target the smell or taste of the subjects were excluded. Titles and abstracts of the articles identified by the research strategy were evaluated by researchers. We included four studies, two of which were exclusively about smell: the first noted the relation between the perception of puff strength and nicotine content; the second did not find any differences in the thresholds and discriminative capacity between smokers and nonsmokers. One article considered only taste and supports the relation between smoking and flavor, another considered both sensory modalities and observes positive results toward the relation immediately after smoking cessation. Conclusion Three of the four studies presented positive results for the researched variables.