ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of broiler breeder age on the morphological development of the small intestine broiler embryos (villus height, crypt depth, microvillus height, and villus density) at 20 day of incubation. Eggs obtained from 30- and 60-wk-old broiler breeders were used. The results showed that embryos from older broiler breeders presented longer villi in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum compared with younger broiler breeders. In addition, embryos from older broiler breeders presented deeper crypts in the jejunum and ileum, longer microvilli in jejunal enterocytes, and lower villus density (microvillus number/mm2) in the duodenum and ileum than younger breeders. These results suggest that breeder age influences the gut mucosa development of broiler embryos. Embryos from older broiler breeder showed greater development of the small intestine mucosa than those from younger broiler breeder.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of glutamine and broiler breeder age on the development of intestinal mucosa in broiler chicks during first week of age. For this purpose, 32 one-day-old broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of two broiler breeder ages (30 and 60 weeks) and two dietary glutamine supplementation levels (0% and 1%). The morphological development of intestinal mucosa, particularly villus height and crypt depth, was evaluated. The results showed that the supplementation with 1% of glutamine influenced the development of villus height in the duodenum (p=0.009), jejunum (p = 0.006), and ileum (p = 0.001), as well as crypt depth in the jejunum (p = 0.037) of 7-day-old broilers. These results suggest that the presence of glutamine influenced the development of intestinal mucosa during the first week of age, when these tissues are highly influenced by dietary components, especially by trophic agents. The results show that broiler breeder age (30 or 60 weeks) did not influence the evaluated parameters.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of light intensity (0, 5 or 20 lx) and different pre-slaughter feed fasting duration (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours) on the parameters body weight loss, carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, water carcass retention, bacterial counts and breast meat pH. A number of 72 broiler chickens at 45 days of age (Cobb 500 strain) was distributed in three chambers, in a total of 24 broilers per chamber. The results showed that feed fasting significantly influenced (p<0.05) body weight losswhen broilers were submitted to 9 hours of fasting. Broilers kept in the chamber with 0 lx presented higher body weight loss compared with other light intensities. The results showed an increase in carcass yield (p<0.05) as pre-slaughter feed fasting duration increased, but it did not affect commercial cuts yield or breast meat pH (p>0.05). The presence of feed in the crop and gizzard did not depend on light intensity, but was affected by pre-slaughter feed fasting duration. Bacterial counts decreased with feed fasting duration (p<0.05).
The aspects involved in broiler water intake are not well known, despite the importance of water in animal nutrition and physiology. Water intake behavior should be taken into account when deciding on different types of drinkers. Bell and nipple drinkers are the most commonly used in commercial broiler production. Broilers were housed in cages equipped with two different drinker types and raised at two different environmental temperatures (25 and 34 ºC) to evaluate water intake behavior and volume. Broiler water intake behavior was influenced by drinker type. Birds visited bell drinkers less often, but presented higher total water intake per visit to the drinker as compared to those drinking from nipple drinkers. The results of this study suggest that both broilers drinking behavior and water intake volume should be taken into account when deciding on drinker type to equip broiler houses.
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of replacing corn by high tannin sorghum in diets of japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on performance and egg quality. Two hundred and fifty-two quails with 50 weeks of age were evaluated during four periods of 21 days. The treatments consisted of diets containing 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of sorghum, and a control treatment (100% of corn). Diets were formulated so that the levels of energy, protein, amino acids (methionine+cystine and lysine), calcium and phosphorus were similar A completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments, six replicates and seven quails for experimental unit. Evaluated parameters were egg production (%), feed intake, feed: gain ratio (kg/kg and kg/dozen), egg mass (g), egg weight and egg quality (Haugh unit, eggshell percentage, shell thickness and yolk color). The increasing sorghum levels had a negative linear effect (p<0.05) on egg production (Y=82.9138 - 0.0966553X; R²=0.87), egg mass (Y= 8.0840626 - 0.009336932X; R²=0.80) and yolk color (Y=7.14340-0.0546875X; R²=0.98). On the other hand, the replacement had a positive linear effect on feed:gain ratio expressed as kg/kg (Y=0.372174 + 0.000536191X; R²=0.92) and as kg/dozen (Y=2.71516 + 0.00423485X; R²=0.94). Control treatment means were different by Dunnett's test (p<0.05) for egg mass (g) when compared to the treatment with 100% of replacement and for yolk color when compared to treatments containing 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of sorghum. There were no differences (p>0.05) in feed intake, egg weight, Haugh unit, eggshell percentage and shell thickness. In conclusion, up to 80% of high tannin sorghum may be used on diets if xanthophyll pigments are added in order to maintain the commercial quality of final products.
This investigation was carried out to study egg traits (weight, specific gravity and eggshell thickness), and neonatal chick parameters (weight, blood, cardiac and lung parameters) from breeder at different ages. After hatching, neonatal chicks, male and female, from broiler breeder at three different ages (30, 45 and 60 weeks) were sacrificed and blood (red blood cell number, hematocrit, mean cell volume, blood viscosity, and haemoglobin), cardiac (right ventricle and total ventricle weights, cardiac index) and lung (mean pulmonary pressure, fresh relative lung weight) parameters were measured. No significant differences in eggshell thickness or specific gravity were observed in eggs from the three different breeder age. The incubated eggs and neonatal chicks showed heavier absolute weights with increasing breeder age. Broiler breeder age did not affect blood parameters or cardiac index, but affected right ventricle and total ventricle absolute weights. Red blood cell number and hematocrit were higher and lung weight and lung weight:chick weight index were lower for female neonatal chicks. The findings of this study revealed that breeder age affects neonatal chick parameters such as body weight, heart and lung absolute weights, but not blood parameters.
The objective of the present study was to assess the development of broiler chicks during the first week post-hatching when reared at three different environmental temperatures. A total of 480 day-old chicks were placed in three environmentally controlled rooms (20, 25 and 35°C) from 1 to 7 days of age. Body weight gain, feed and water intake, as well as liver, gizzard, heart, yolk sac and bursa of Fabricius weights were measured daily. Tibia and femur bones were weighed and their length and width (medial diameter) were also obtained. The chicks reared at 20º C had lower weight gain and ingested less food than chicks reared at 25°C and less water than chicks kept at 35°C. Relative weights of the liver, heart, and gizzard were affected by environmental temperature, whereas yolk sac and bursa of Fabricius relative weights were not. The data showed that all bone parameters increased with bird age. Environmental temperature did not affect tibia or femur width, however a significant increase in bone weight and length occurred with increasing environmental temperature. These results indicate that brooding temperature of 20°C during the first seven days post-hatching was stressful decreasing broiler bone development and reducing chicks body weight.
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas-ambiente durante a primeira semana de vida de pintos de corte sob parâmetros zootécnicos, desenvolvimento visceral e crescimento ósseo. Foram utilizados 240 pintos de um dia, alojados em 3 câmaras climáticas, com temperaturas constantes de 20, 25 e 35°C do 1° ao 7° dia de vida. Diariamente, o consumo de água e ração, bem como o peso vivo, o peso relativo do fígado, moela, coração, saco vitelino e bursa de Fabricius foram avaliados. A tíbia e o fêmur também foram pesados e o comprimento e espessura (diâmetro médio) mensurados. As aves criadas a 20°C ganharam menos peso e consumiram menos ração do que aves mantidas a 25°C e menos água do que aves mantidas a 35°C. O peso relativo do fígado, coração e moela foram afetados pela temperatura ambiente, entretanto, não foi observado efeito da temperatura de criação sobre o peso do saco vitelino e bursa de Fabricius. Os dados mostraram que todos os parâmetros ósseos pesquisados aumentaram com a idade das aves. A temperatura ambiente não afetou a espessura da tíbia e do fêmur, mas foi observado um aumento significativo no peso e comprimento dos ossos com o aumento da temperatura ambiente. Os resultados desse experimento mostraram que o estresse por frio (20°C) reduziu o crescimento ósseo bem como o peso vivo das aves, durante os primeiros sete dias após a eclosão.
This experiment was undertaken with the objective of studying the effect of broiler breeder age on gastrointestinal embryo development starting from the17th day of incubation up to hatching (Experiment 1). Yolk utilization during the first 24 h after hatching in fed and fasted chicks was also investigated (Experiment 2). Fertile eggs (Cobb 500 strain) from broiler breeder aging 30 and 60 weeks were incubated under standard conditions. The findings of this study demonstrated that the development of small intestine and yolk weight in the embryos was not influenced by broiler breeder age. After hatching, the small intestine development was faster for chicks from 60 week-old broiler breeders. In this case, the jejunum growing faster than duodenum and ileum. The presence of feed influenced yolk utilization only in chicks from 30 week-old broiler breeder. This study indicates that broiler breeder age has an important role on embryo gut development and yolk utilization, and is a relevant factor on the chicks growth after hatching.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da idade das matrizes pesadas sobre o desenvolvimento do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) dos embriões no terço final do período de incubação, bem como a utilização das reservas do saco vitelino nas 24 h pós-eclosão, em pintos alimentados ou em jejum. Foram utilizados ovos férteis da linhagem Cobb 500, oriundos de matrizes pesadas com 30 e 60 semanas de idade. O desenvolvimento do TGI (proventrículo+moela, segmentos do intestino delgado e saco vitelino) foi estudado entre o 17º e 21º dias de incubação (Experimento 1). Nas 24 h pós-eclosão foi pesquisado o efeito da presença ou não de alimento no lúmen intestinal sobre a utilização das reservas do saco vitelino (Experimento 2). Os achados deste trabalho mostraram que, ao contrário do embrião, o desenvolvimento do intestino delgado e o peso do saco vitelino não sofreram influência da idade das matrizes. Na fase pós-eclosão, na ausência de alimento, o desenvolvimento do intestino delgado foi maior nas matrizes com 60 semanas, sendo dependente do crescimento do jejuno. A presença do alimento no lúmen teve influência na utilização das reservas do saco vitelino apenas nas matrizes com 30 semanas de idade. Os resultados deste experimento mostraram que a idade da matriz é importante fator no desenvolvimento do trato gastrointestinal do embrião, sendo fator relevante no crescimento pós-ecloão dos pintos.