OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) may reduce cardiovascular risk and preserve functional capacity of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, only limited research objectively measured PA in patients with low socioeconomic status (SES) in low-income countries, particularly in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. This study compared the PA assessed by accelerometers in women of low SES living with HIV under common antiretroviral therapy (cART) from two major cities in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, n=33; 40.1±6.1 years) and Mozambique (Maputo, n=50; 38.8±8.7 years). METHODS: Eligible women wore triaxial accelerometers during seven consecutive days, to estimate their habitual PA and daily energy expenditure. RESULTS: The proportion of participants with overweight/obesity was greater in Rio than Maputo (57% vs. 30%; p=0.021), as well as those classified as sedentary based on steps/day (45% vs. 22%; p=0.02). Sedentary time was prevalent (Median±IQD: Rio-1236±142 vs. Maputo-1192±135 min/day; p=0.15). Time spent in PA was short, but Brazilians exhibited lower amount of light (111±56 vs. 145±51 min/day; p<0.001) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (88±3 vs. 64±36 min/day; p=0.001) vs. Mozambicans. The proportion of patients performing 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA were 58% (Rio) and 82% (Maputo), respectively. Despite of this, estimated daily energy expenditure was equivalent in both groups (1976±579 vs. 1933±492 kcal; p=0.731). CONCLUSIONS: Women with low SES living with HIV in Maputo were more active vs. patients from Rio de Janeiro. Albeit sedentary behavior was prevalent, the proportion of patients complying with the minimum recommended PA for health was higher than values usually reported in developed countries.