Abstract: Molecular studies have shown more than one species of the genus Paracoccidioides to be the causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Efforts have been made to correlate the identified species with epidemiological and clinical data of patients, aiming to determine the real meaning and impact of new species. Bearing this objective in mind, the authors report a clinical case of paracoccidioidomycosis, from São Paulo state, Brazil, that manifested as uncommon sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions and was caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis sensu stricto (S1a). The patient was treated with itraconazole 200mg/day for 12 months, with complete clinical remission.
Abstract Propolis and geopropolis are resinous products of bees showing antimicrobial effects. There is no data concerning their action against Pythium insidiosum - the causative agent of pythiosis, a pyogranulomatous disease of the subcutaneous tissue that affects mostly horses, dogs and humans. Fragments of 15 isolates of P. insidiodum were incubated with propolis and geopropolis extracts and evaluated for up to seven days to detect the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). Propolis inhibited three isolates at 1.0 mg mL-1 after 24 h and all other isolates at 3.4 mg mL-1. Geopropolis led to more variable results, exerting predominantly a fungistatic action than a fungicidal one. Propolis was more efficient than geopropolis in inhibiting P. insidiosum since lower concentrations led to no growth after 24 h. This effect may be due to propolis chemical composition, which has more active compounds than geopropolis. Propolis seemed to be a good candidate for in vivo studies, since treatment with conventional antifungal compounds is difficult in most of the cases, requiring extensive surgical debridement.
INTRODUÇÃO: Infecções fúngicas na pele humana (como a esporotricose) podem se manifestar após traumatismos por peixes. O objetivo deste trabalho é procurar fungos patogênicos para o homem em peixes fluviais. MÉTODOS: Extração de arcadas dentárias Serrassalmus maculatus (piranha) e Hoplias malabaricus (traíra), ferrões de Pimelodus maculatus (mandis), raios da nadadeira dorsal de Plagioscion spp. (corvina) e Tilapia spp. para a realização do cultivo em agar Mycosel. Algumas culturas foram submetidas à extração de DNA para a identificação molecular pelo seqüenciamento da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA. RESULTADOS: As culturas mostraram que a maioria das leveduras era Candida spp. e o sequenciamento também permitiu a identificação de Phoma spp. e Yarrowia lipolytica. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a pesquisa para S. schenckii tenha sido negativa, a presença de fungos do gênero Phoma e Candida revela o potencial patogênico desta via de infecção. O gênero Phoma está envolvido em alguns casos de feohifomicoses, micoses subcutâneas causadas por fungos dematiáceos com relatos de infecções em órgãos e sistemas humanos. As estruturas traumatizantes de alguns peixes fluviais apresentam fungos patogênicos e esta pode ser uma importante via de infecção que deve ser considerada em algumas regiões do Brasil, uma vez que há um grande número de pescadores e peixes traumatogênicos.
INTRODUCTION: Fungal infections in human skin, such as sporotrichosis, can occur after fish induced trauma. This work aimed to identify fungi in freshwater fish that are pathogenic to humans. METHODS: Extraction of dental arches from Serrassalmus maculatus (piranha) and Hoplias malabaricus (wolf fish), stings from Pimelodus maculatus (mandis catfish), dorsal fin rays from Plagioscion spp. (corvina) and Tilapia spp., for culture in Mycosel agar. Some cultures were submitted to DNA extraction for molecular identification by sequencing ITS-5.8S rDNA. RESULTS: Cultures identified most yeast as Candida spp., while sequencing also permitted the identification of Phoma spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica. CONCLUSIONS: While the search for S. schenckii was negative, the presence of fungus of the genera Phoma and Candida revealed the pathogenic potential of this infection route. The genus Phoma is involved in certain forms of phaeohyphomycosis, a subcutaneous mycosis caused by dematiaceous fungi, with reports of infections in human organs and systems. Traumatizing structures of some freshwater fish present pathogenic fungi and this may be an important infection route that must be considered in some regions of Brazil, since there are a large number of a fisherman in constant contact with traumatogenic fish.
Medical mycology has greatly benefited from the introduction of molecular techniques. New knowledge on molecular genetics has provided both theoretical and practical frameworks, permitting important advances in our understanding of several aspects of pathogenic fungi. Considering Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in particular, important eco-epidemiological aspects, such as environmental distribution and new hosts were clarified through molecular approaches. These methodologies also contributed to a better understanding about the genetic variability of this pathogen; thus, P. brasiliensis is now assumed to represent a species complex. The present review focuses on some recent findings about the current taxonomic status of P. brasiliensis, its phylogenetic and speciation processes, as well as on some practical applications for the molecular detection of this pathogen in environmental and clinical materials.