ABSTRACT Purpose: Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) are still increasing in developing countries. Limited access to the health system or more aggressive disease are potential reasons for this. Ethnic and social differences in developed countries seem to make inappropriate to extrapolate data from other centers. We aim to report the epidemiological profile of a PSA-screened population from a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 9.692 men enrolled in a PCa prevention program, comprising total PSA level and digital rectal examination at the first appointment, associated with complementary tests when necessary. Men aged over 40 years-old were included after shared decision-making process. Prostate biopsy (TRUS) was performed when clinically suspected for PCa. After the diagnosis, patients underwent appropriate treatment. Results: TRUS was performed in 5.5% of men and PCa incidence was 2.6%. Overall ratio between number of patients who needed to be screened in order to diagnose one cancer was 38.9 patients, with 2.1 biopsies performed to diagnose a cancer. Positive predictive value (PPV) of TRUS biopsy in this strategy was 47.2%, varying from 38.5% (<50 years-old) to 60% (>80 years-old). We evidenced 70 patients (27.9%) classified as low risk tumors, 74 (29.5%) as intermediate risk, and 107 (42.6%) as high-risk disease. Conclusions: PSA-screening remains controversial in literature. In front of a huge miscegenated people and considering the big proportion of high-risk PCa, even in young men diagnosed with the disease, it is imperative to inform patients and health providers about these data particularities in Brazil.
ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths. In Brazil, it is likewise the second most common cancer among men, second only to non-melanoma skin cancers. The aim of this consensus is to align different opinions and interpretations of the medical literature in a practical and patient-oriented approach. The first Brazilian Consensus on the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer was published in 2017, with the goal of reducing the heterogeneity of therapeutic conduct in Brazilian patients with metastatic prostate cancer. We acknowledge that in Brazil the incorporation of different technologies is a big challenge, especially in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), which allows for the disparity in the options available to patients treated in different institutions. In order to update the recommendations and to make them objective and easily accessible, once more a panel of specialists was formed in order to discuss and elaborate a new Brazilian Consensus on Advanced Prostate Cancer. This Consensus was written through a joint initiative of the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC) and the Brazilian Society of Urology (SBU) to support the clinical decisions of physicians and other health professionals involved in the care of patients with prostate cancer.
BACKGROUND: The susceptibility to adverse outcome from critical illness (occurrence of sepsis, septic shock, organ dysfunction/failure, and mortality) varies dramatically due to different degrees of inflammatory response. An over expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) can lead to the progression of the inflammatory condition. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of the genotype distribution of -308G >A TNF-α polymorphism with regard to the development of sepsis, septic shock, higher organ dysfunction or mortality in critically ill patients. METHODS: Observational, hospital-based cohort study of 520 critically ill Caucasian patients from southern Brazil admitted to the general ICU of São Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were monitored daily from the ICU admission day to hospital discharge or death, measuring SOFA score, sepsis, and septic shock occurrences. The -308G >A TNF-α SNP effect was analyzed in the entire patient group, in patients with sepsis (349/520), and in those who developed septic shock (248/520). RESULTS: The genotypic and allelic frequencies were -308GG = 0.72; -308GA = 0.27; -308AA = 0.01; -308G = 0.85; -308A = 0.15. No associations were found with sepsis, septic shock, organ dysfunction, and/or mortality rates among the TNF-α genotypes. Our results reveal that the -308G >A TNF-α SNP alone was not predictive of severe outcomes in critically ill patients. CONCLUSION: The principal novel input of this study was the larger sample size in an investigation with -308G > A TNF-α SNP. The presence of -308A allele is not associated with sepsis, septic shock, higher organ dysfunction or mortality in critically ill patients.