ABSTRACT Phytonematodes are among the main pathogens of the common bean. In general, control practices that aim to control these pathogens have not been regularly adopted in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the occurrence of phytonematodes in dry bean fields in Paraná and São Paulo states and estimate the pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to dry bean in glasshouse experiments. Root and soil were sampled for nematode extraction, identification and estimation of population density. Four glasshouse experiments with different initial population densities were carried out to evaluate the effect of P. brachyurus on the growth of dry bean plants. Six species of phytonematodes were detected, namely Helicotylenchus dihystera, P. brachyurus, Pratylenchus crenatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus sp. The spiral nematode H. dihystera was found in all samples and was the most abundant species in both states. The lesion nematode P. brachyurus was also frequent, reaching 94% in Paraná and 100% in São Paulo. The root-knot nematodes and Rotylenchulus sp. were reported only in São Paulo fields (45% and 18% frequency, respectively), and P. crenatus only in Paraná (12%). The most abundant nematode in the soil was H. dihystera, and in roots was P. crenatus. It was demonstrated that densities of 6.66 specimens of P. brachyurus per cm3 of soil provoke visible and measurable root decay. In conclusion, survey data showed low phytonematode densities and pathogenicity tests demonstrated that densities above 6.67 specimens of P. brachyurus per cm3 of soil cause damage to the dry bean roots.