This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of lanternfish (Myctophidae) larvae along the Brazilian coast (12-22ºS) between 200 m and the surface. Three cruises were conducted during the spring/1998, winter/1999 and autumn/2000. A total of 3,394 lanternfish larvae were identified representing 27 species and Lepidophanes guentheri (Goode & Bean, 1896) was the most abundant. Most of the identified taxa were in the postflexion stage. Myctophid larvae were more numerous during the winter. Most taxa were distributed widely from 12-22ºS, including some seamounts, and occurred mainly outside the 1,000 m isobath. Although there was no difference in the myctophid community among the coastal, oceanic and seamount regions it was significantly different during the three seasons. During the spring and autumn Hygophum reinhardtii (Lütken, 1892) was the discriminating species while in the winter there were more L. guentheri.