OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the personal and professional characteristics, and the physical, psychiatric/psychological, and professional issues that exist among master’s-, doctoral-, and post-doctoral-level health professionals. METHODS: A cross-sectional, online, self-reported survey of 452 postgraduates who completed master’s, doctoral, or post-doctoral degrees in one graduate program in pediatrics in São Paulo, Brazil, was conducted. RESULTS: The response rate was 47% (211/453). The majority of participants were women (78%) and physicians (74%), and the median age was 47 years (28-71). Master’s, doctoral, and post-doctoral degrees were reported by 73%, 53%, and 3%, respectively. High workload (>40 hours/week) occurred in 59%, and 45% earned ≥15 minimum wages/month. At least one participation in scientific meeting in the past year was reported by 91%, and 79% had published their research. Thirty-nine percent served as a member of a faculty of an institution of higher learning. The data were analyzed by two age groups: participants aged ≤48 years (group 1) and participants aged >48 years (group 2). The median rating of overall satisfaction with the profession in the past year [8 (0-10) vs. 9 (1-10), p=0.0113]; workload >40 hours/week (53% vs. 68%, p=0.034); and ≥15 minimum wages/month (37% vs. 56%, p=0.0083) were significantly lower in group 1. Further analysis by gender revealed that the median rating of overall satisfaction with the profession in the past year [8 (0-10) vs. 9 (3-10), p=0.0015], workload >40 hours/week (53% vs. 83%, p=0.0002), and ≥15 minimum wages/month (37% vs. 74%, p=0.0001) were significantly lower in women compared with men. The median rating of overall satisfaction with the mentorship supervision provided was significantly higher among the women 10 (5-10) vs. 10 (2-10), p=0.0324]. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of master’s-, doctoral-, and post-doctoral-level health professionals were women and physicians, and had published their thesis. Younger postgraduates and women reported low salaries, less likelihood of working >40 hours/week, and less overall satisfaction with their profession. Further longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to assess career trajectories after graduation.