ABSTRACT Metabolomics uses several analytical tools to identify the chemical diversity of metabolites present in organisms. These metabolites are low molecular weight molecules (<1500 Da) classified as a final or intermediary product of metabolic processes. The application of this omics technology has become prominent in inferring physiological conditions through reporting on the phenotypic state; therefore, the introduction of metabolomics into clinical studies has been growing in recent years due to its efficiency in discriminating pathophysiological states. Regarding endocrine diseases, there is a great interest in verifying comprehensive and individualized physiological scenarios, in particular for growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The current GHD diagnostic tests are laborious and invasive and there is no exam with ideal reproducibility and sensitivity for diagnosis neither standard GH cut-off point. Therefore, this review was focussed on articles that applied metabolomics in the search for new biomarkers for GHD. The present work shows that the applications of metabolomics in GHD are still limited, since the little complementarily of analytical techniques, a low number of samples, GHD combined to other deficiencies, and idiopathic diagnosis shows a lack of progress. The results of the research are relevant and similar; however, their results do not provide an application for clinical practice due to the lack of multidisciplinary actions that would be needed to mediate the translation of the knowledge produced in the laboratory, if transferred to the medical setting.
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a chronic dermatosis with peculiar characteristics and unknown etiology, often of difficult diagnosis. It manifests as painful skin ulcers with rapid and progressive evolution, most commonly in the lower limbs. Ulcerations can occur spontaneously or after various types of trauma. The period between the onset of the lesions and the correct diagnosis is often prolonged. There is no standard treatment or simple algorithm for the choice of therapy. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the current literature on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this pathology through systematic analysis of the current references in the databases PubMed, Scielo, Medline and Lilacs.
O pioderma gangrenoso (PG) é uma dermatose crônica com características peculiares e de etiologia desconhecida, muitas vezes de difícil diagnóstico. Manifesta-se através de lesões cutâneas ulceradas e dolorosas com evolução rápida e progressiva, mais comumente em membros inferiores. As ulcerações podem surgir espontaneamente ou depois de variados tipos de trauma. O período entre o início das lesões e o diagnóstico correto costuma ser prolongado. Não existe nenhum tratamento padronizado ou algoritmo simples para a escolha da terapia. Neste artigo, os autores fazem uma ampla revisão da literatura atual acerca da fisiopatologia, do diagnóstico e do tratamento desta patologia através de análise sistemática das referências bibliográficas atuais nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, Medline e Lilacs.