INTRODUCTION: Several patients with partial epilepsies do not present an easily identified epileptogenic focus on scalp EEG or visible lesion on MRI. There are some useful functional neuroimaging techniques that could be considered in these cases, such as interictal positron emission tomography (PET) scan and ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These techniques can guide the placement of deep electrodes or even prevent their use in some situations. Unfortunately, PET scanners are not easily available in a great number of epilepsy centers because of its cost. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that 18F-FDG SPECT could be a good alternative replacing PET scan on localization of epileptic focus and surgical planning in places where this technology is not available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case report of a patient with refractory neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy, with normal MRI and nuclear EEG localization. RESULTS: The patient was submitted to interictal 18F-FDG SPECT scan, that showed hypometabolism in the anterior, mesial and lateral parts of the right temporal lobe. These areas were surgically resected and the patient outcome after 24 moths has been very good (Engel IB). CONCLUSION: We suggest that in some situations an interictal 18F-FDG SPECT scan could replace 18F-FDG PET scan where this technique is not available.
INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos portadores de epilepsias parciais não apresentam foco epileptogênico facilmente identificado na investigação com EEG de superfície e ressonância magnética (RM). Nestes casos o uso de técnicas de neuroimagem funcional como a tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET) interictal e a tomografia por emissão de fóton único (SPECT) ictal devem ser considerados, visando evitar a colocação de eletrodos profundos em alguns casos ou guiar o posicionamento destes em outros. O exame de PET, no entanto, não é disponível em grande parte dos centros de epilepsia, principalmente por seu alto custo. OBJETIVO: O nosso objetivo é demonstrar que a utilização de FDG-18F SPECT interictal pode ser uma boa alternativa ao uso do PET na localização do foco e planejamento cirúrgico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Relato de uma paciente com epilepsia parcial de lobo temporal neocortical, refratária a tratamento clínico, com RM normal e EEG ictal sem localização definida do foco epileptogênico. RESULTADOS: Após a extensa investigação pré cirúrgica sem resultados satisfatórios optou-se pela realização de exame de medicina nuclear FDG-18F SPECT interictal. O exame demonstrou hipometabolismo na região anterior das porções mesial e lateral do lobo temporal direito. A paciente foi, então, submetida à ressecção destas áreas e permanece com excelente controle de crises (Engel IB) 24 meses após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: O FDG-18F SPECT pode tornar-se um substituto do PET nos locais onde esta tecnologia não é disponível.
Multiple organ failure (MOF) is the main cause of death in ICUs, especially affecting septic patients. It is strongly related to number of systems with failure, type of system involved, risk factors such as age, previous chronic diseases, delayed or inadequate resuscitation, persistent infection, immune suppression, and others. The prognoses is worse for patients rather than in elective or emergency surgical patients. The objective of this article is to provide data from our university teaching hospital ICU related to the incidence of septic patients, the distribution of MOF, and distribution of failure among each of the organs. The mortality rate, relationship between mortality and age, and mortality and types of organs affected were evaluated. The main bacterial causes of sepsis were also identified. A retrospective evaluation was done of 249 patients admitted to the ICU in a 4 month period during 1999. Fifty four patients had sepsis diagnosed by ACCS/SCCM criteria. There were 37 men and 17 women; 24 medical and 30 post-surgical patients (9 after elective surgery and 21 emergency patients). APACHE II score was calculated on admission and MOF, measured for the first five days, was diagnosed using Marshall and Meakins criteria. The statistical method used was non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05 was considered significant. The incidence of sepsis was recorded in 54/249 patients (22%). Thirty of these 54 patients (56%) died. Death occurred in 2 of 11 pateints with one organ failure (18%), in 14/27 with 2 or 3 organ failures (52%), and 14/16 with 4 or more organ failures (88%). None of the three patients 15 to 20 years old died, 17/32 (55%) pateints age 21-60 years, and >61 years 13/19 (68%), died. There were 23 patients with positive bacterial culture. The most frequent bacteria found were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), multiresistant Acinetobacter baumanii (3), Staphylococcus epidermidis (3), Enterobacter aerogenes (3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2) and multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (2). The mean value ± SD of APACHE II (mortality risk) for survivors was 21 ± 18 and for non-survivors 42 ± 26 (p<0.001). We conclude that MOF due to sepsis in an ICU is frequent, with high mortality related to the number of failing organs, age and high APACHE II.