Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction may have a large infarcted area and ventricular dysfunction despite early thrombolysis and revascularization. Objective To investigate the behavior of circulating cytokines in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and their relationship with ventricular function. Methods In the BATTLE-AMI (B and T Types of Lymphocytes Evaluation in Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial, patients with STEMI were treated with a pharmacoinvasive strategy. The plasma levels of cytokines (IL-1 β , IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline and after 30 days. Infarcted mass and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were examined by 3-T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Compared to baseline, lower levels were detected for IL-1 β (p = 0.028) and IL-18 (p < 0.0001) 30 days after STEMI, whereas higher levels were observed for IL-4 (p = 0.001) and IL-10 (p < 0.0001) at that time point. Conversely, no changes were detected for IL-6 levels (p = 0.63). The levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and IL-6 correlated at baseline (rho = 0.45, p < 0.0001) and 30 days after STEMI (rho = 0.29, p = 0.009). At baseline, correlation between IL-6 levels and LVEF was also observed (rho = -0.50, p = 0.004). Conclusions During the first month post-MI, we observed a marked improvement in the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, except for IL-6. These findings suggest residual inflammatory risk. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)
Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio podem apresentar uma grande área infartada e disfunção ventricular mesmo com trombólise e revascularização precoces. Objetivo Investigar o comportamento das citocinas circulantes em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST) e a relação delas com a função ventricular. Métodos No estudo BATTLE-AMI (Avaliação dos Linfócitos Tipos B e T no Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio), os pacientes com IAMCSST foram tratados com uma estratégia farmacoinvasiva. Os níveis de citocinas (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 e IL-18) no plasma foram testados através de ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA) no início do estudo e após 30 dias. A massa infartada e a fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda (FEVE) foram examinadas por ressonância magnética cardíaca 3-T. Valores de p menores que 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados Na comparação com o início do estudo, níveis mais baixos foram detectados para IL-1β (p = 0,028) e IL-18 (p < 0,0001) após 30 dias do IAMCSST, enquanto níveis mais altos foram observados para IL-4 (p = 0,001) e IL-10 (p < 0,0001) no mesmo momento. Em contrapartida, nenhuma mudança foi detectada nos níveis de IL-6 (p = 0,63). Os níveis da proteína C-reativa de alta sensibilidade e de IL-6 se correlacionaram no início do estudo (rho = 0,45, p < 0,0001) e 30 dias após o IAMCSST (rho = 0,29, p = 0,009). No início do estudo, a correlação entre os níveis de IL-6 e FEVE também foi observada (rho = -0,50, p = 0,004). Conclusões Durante o primeiro mês pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio, observamos uma melhora significativa no balanço das citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias, exceto da IL-6. Esses achados sugerem risco inflamatório residual. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)
OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, open-label study aimed to compare the effects of antihypertensive treatment based on amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide on the circulating microparticles and central blood pressure values of hypertensive patients. METHODS: The effects of treatments on circulating microparticles were assessed during monotherapy and after the consecutive addition of valsartan and rosuvastatin followed by the withdrawal of rosuvastatin. Each treatment period lasted for 30 days. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity were measured at the end of each period. Endothelial, monocyte, and platelet circulating microparticles were determined by flow cytometry. Central blood pressure values and pulse wave velocity were recorded at the end of each treatment period. RESULTS: No differences in brachial blood pressure were observed between the treatment groups throughout the study. Although similar central blood pressure values were observed during monotherapy, lower systolic and diastolic central blood pressure values and early and late blood pressure peaks were observed in the amlodipine arm after the addition of valsartan alone or combined with rosuvastatin. Hydrochlorothiazide-based therapy was associated with a lower number of endothelial microparticles throughout the study, whereas a higher number of platelet microparticles was observed after rosuvastatin withdrawal in the amlodipine arm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar brachial blood pressure values between groups throughout the study, exposure to amlodipine was associated with lower central blood pressure values after combination with valsartan, indicating a beneficial interaction. Differences between circulating microparticles were modest and were mainly influenced by rosuvastatin withdrawal in the amlodipine arm.
OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1) whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2) whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM), sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.