Abstract The objective of this work is to investigate the conversion of spent coffee grounds (SCG) into biochar (BSC) and the ecotoxicological effects of the product obtained. The SCG and BSC were characterized by characterized by different techniques (TGA/DTG, FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDS, and EDXRF). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) was used to characterize the aqueous extract of BSC. The inhibitory effect on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) germination was investigated. Besides, antimicrobial activity evaluation trials were conducted with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma spp. The results showed that in the BSC production process, the extractives and lignocellulosic components in the SCG were partly decomposed. Tests conducted with microorganisms did not reveal any toxic effect of BSC. However, high phytotoxicity against lettuce was recorded for rate 100 t/ha of BSC. This effect was associated with the presence of carboxylic acids identified by 1H NMR in the BSC extract aqueous.
Abstract Although a group of soft ticks (Argasidae) associated with amphibians was recently discovered in Brazilian rainforests, parasitism by these ticks on cold-blooded animals remains less common than on mammal and bird species. In this study, we identified ticks that were collected from toads that had been caught in December 2016 and January 2017, at Itinguçú waterfall (22°54’05” S; 43°53’30” W) in the municipality of Itaguaí, state of Rio de Janeiro. Tick specimens were identified using a morphological and molecular approach. In total, twelve larvae of Ornithodoros ticks were collected from three individuals of Rhinella ornata and were identified as Ornithodoros faccinii. Our results include a longer 16S rRNA mitochondrial sequence for O. faccinii that supports its phylogenetic relatedness to Ornithodoros saraivai, and we report this tick species parasitizing Rhinella toads for the first time in Brazil.
Resumo Embora um grupo de carrapatos moles (Argasidae) associado a anfíbios tenha sido recentemente descoberto nas florestas brasileiras, o parasitismo por esses carrapatos em animais de sangue frio permanece menos comum do que nas espécies de mamíferos e aves. Neste estudo, identificamos carrapatos que foram coletados de sapos capturados em dezembro de 2016 e janeiro de 2017, na cachoeira de Itinguçú (22°54’05” S; 43°53’30” W) no município de Itaguaí, estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os espécimes de carrapatos foram identificados usando uma abordagem morfológica e molecular. No total, doze larvas de carrapatos Ornithodoros foram coletadas de três indivíduos de Rhinella ornata e foram identificadas como Ornithodoros faccinii. Nossos resultados incluem uma maior seqüência mitocondrial 16S rRNA para O. faccinii que suporta sua relação filogenética com Ornithodoros saraivai e relatamos esta espécie de carrapato parasitando sapos Rhinella pela primeira vez no Brasil.