Abstract Introduction: We investigated the clinical course and outcomes of patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery in Brazil and who had developed symptoms/signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the perioperative period. Methods: A retrospective multicenter study including 104 patients who were allocated in three groups according to time of positive real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2): group 1, patients who underwent cardiac surgery > 10 days after positive RT-PCR; group 2, patients with a positive RT-PCR within 10 days before or after surgery; group 3, patients who presented positive RT-PCR > 10 days after surgery. The primary outcome was mortality and secondary outcomes were postoperative complications, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and postoperative days of hospitalization. Results: The three groups were similar with respect to age, the European System of Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score, and comorbidities, except hypertension. Postoperative complications and death were significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, and no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 was seen. Group 2 showed a high prevalence of surgery performed as an urgent procedure. Although no significant differences were observed in ICU length of stay, total postoperative hospitalization time was significantly higher in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: COVID-19 affecting the postoperative period of patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery is associated with a higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Delaying procedures in RT-PCR-positive patients may help reduce risks of perioperative complications and death.
Abstract Assess the state of public green areas, their importance and influence on environmental quality and living in urban centers is an arduous task considering the conceptual and scientific regarding quantification and data analysis methods divergence. In this study, we aimed to determine two indicators of public green areas relative to the percentage of public green areas (PPGA) and the public green areas index (PGAI) in the urban area of São Carlos, SP. The study area was organized into administrative regions (ARs), using satellite images, topographical maps of 1:10,000 Geographic and Cartographic Institute (1990) and data provided by the Municipality of São Carlos. The results show that public green areas comprise 6.55% of the municipality, with a public green areas index (PGAI) of 18.85 m2/inhabitant, indicating good urban environmental quality when compared to rates of 15 m2/capita for public green areas for recreation, suggested by the Brazilian Society of Urban Forestry. The differences between the administrative regions are concern with situations from 4.16 to 36.30 m2/inhabitant. In this context, it is recommend specific public policies and popular participation in the process of continuous improvement for increasing public green areas in the less favored regions. The Genebrino method applied to indicators of public green areas (GPGA – amount of public green areas divided by population density), showed a commendable goal above 40% for urban environmental quality.
Resumo Diagnosticar a situação das áreas verdes públicas, sua importância e influência na qualidade ambiental e de vida nos centros urbanos é uma tarefa árdua, considerando a divergência conceitual e de métodos científicos no que tange a quantificação e a análise dos dados. Neste estudo, objetivou-se determinar dois indicadores de áreas verdes públicas, referentes ao percentual de áreas verdes públicas (PAVP) e ao índice de áreas verdes públicas (IAVP) no perímetro urbano do Município de São Carlos, SP. A área de estudo foi organizada em regiões administrativas (RAs), utilizando imagens de satélite, cartas topográficas 1:10.000 do Instituto Geográfico e Cartográfico (1990) e dados fornecidos pela Prefeitura Municipal de São Carlos. Os resultados demonstram que as áreas verdes públicas compreendem 6,55% do território do município, com um índice de áreas verdes públicas (IAVP) de 18,85 m2/habitante, indicando uma boa qualidade ambiental urbana quando comparado aos índices de 15 m2/habitante para áreas verdes públicas destinadas à recreação, sugerido pela Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana. As diferenças entre as regiões administrativas são preocupantes, com situações de 4,16 a 36,30 m2/habitantes. Neste contexto, recomendam-se políticas públicas específicas e a participação popular no processo de melhoria contínua para o incremento das áreas verdes públicas nas regiões menos favorecidas. O método genebrino, aplicado aos indicadores de áreas verdes públicas (IAVP – somatório das áreas verdes públicas dividido pela densidade populacional), apontou uma meta recomendável acima de 40% para a qualidade ambiental urbana.
Various vegetables as biological catalysts were evaluated in enantioselective reduction of carbonyl compounds. The stereoselectivity of the process was in agreement with Prelog's rule for twelve of the vegetables, whereas okra and green peppers formed anti-Prelog products. Zingiber officinale exhibited the best results with 30% conversion and 89% ee. The parameters of the reaction such as time, solvent and other substrates investigated, as well as the specie, showed good chemo- and enantioselectivity.