OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent types of malignant neoplasms. Age is a risk factor for this disease, with 75% of cases diagnosed in patients older than 65 years. Complications such as obstruction, hemorrhage, and perforation are present in more than one-third of cases and require emergency treatment. We aim to analyze the profile of elderly patients undergoing surgery for complicated colorectal cancer, and to evaluate factors related to worse short-term prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent emergency surgical treatment for complicated colorectal cancer was performed. Demographics, clinical, radiological and histological data were collected. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were analyzed. The median age was 72 years, and almost half (46%) of the patients were female. Obstruction was the most prevalent complication at initial presentation (72%). The most common sites of neoplasia were the left and sigmoid colon in 22 patients (32.8%), and the right colon in 17 patients (25.4%). Resection was performed in 88% of cases, followed by primary anastomosis in almost half. The most frequent clinical stages were II (48%) and III (22%). Forty-three patients (65.7%) had some form of postoperative complication. Clavien-Dindo grades 1, 2, and 4, were the most frequent. Complete oncologic resection was observed in 80% of the cases. The thirty-day mortality rate was 10.4%. Advanced age was associated with worse morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with complicated colorectal cancer undergoing emergency surgery have high morbidity and mortality rates. Advanced age is significantly associated with worse outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with traffic motorcycles accidents. METHODS: The sample consisted of 285 motorcycle accident victims in São Paulo. Data were collected from 24-hour emergency service shifts regarding: conditions of the victims, security equipment, road and vehicle conditions. RESULTS: Victims were mostly young men (92%); 23% used the motorcycle for work (average: 8 hours per day); 45% had owned a motorcycle for less than two years; 77% were licensed motorcycle drivers; 33% had less than four years of qualification; 31% had attended a course of defensive driving. Severe lesions were identified in 67% of the unlicensed drivers. Polytrauma occurred in 9% head trauma in 5% of the entire population. Lower limb fractures occurred more frequently than upper limb (17% vs. 12%). Most wore helmets (90%) but only 18% wore helmet, boots and jacket. Positive readings for alcohol (7%) and drugs (14%) occurred in 21% of victims. Most accidents occurred as a consequence of imprudence (88%), during the day (67%), in dry weather conditions (94%). A side impact was registered in 48% of cases; 80% of motorcycles had an engine capacity up to 250 cc. In 51% of the accidents the person responsible for the accident was the driver of the other vehicle in the accident. CONCLUSION: Most accidents involve motorcyclists who are young male adults, use the motorcycle as a means of transport and do not consider safety, defensive driving and the use of alcohol and drugs as important factors.
OBJETIVOS: Avaliar fatores associados com acidentes de trânsito com motocicletas. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 285 vítimas de acidente de motocicleta em São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados em plantões nas unidades de emergência. Foram coletadas informações sobre: condições das vítimas, uso de equipamentos de segurança, condições de estrada e veículo. RESULTADOS: As vítimas eram principalmente homens jovens (92%); 23% usavam a motocicleta para o trabalho (média: 8 horas por dia); 45% possuíam a motocicleta por menos de dois anos; 77% tinham habilitação para dirigir; 33% tinham menos de quatro anos de habilitação; 31% tinham feito curso de direção defensiva. Lesões graves foram identificadas em 67% dos motoristas não habilitados. Houve politraumatismo em 9% das vítimas e traumatismo craniano em 5% da população avaliada. Fraturas de membros inferiores ocorreram mais frequentemente do em membros superiores (17% contra 12%). A maioria usava capacetes (90%), mas apenas 18% usava capacete, botas e jaqueta. Dosagens positivas de álcool (7%) e drogas (14%) foram vistas e totalizaram 21% de todas as vítimas. A maioria dos acidentes ocorreu como consequência de imprudência (88%), durante o dia (67%) e sem chuva (94%). CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos acidentes envolve vítimas do sexo masculino, adultos, que usam a motocicleta como meio de transporte e não consideram equipamentos de segurança, condução defensiva e o consumo de álcool e drogas fatores importantes para prevenção dos acidentes.
OBJECTIVE: To present our experience in the management of patients with infected pancreatic necrosis without drainage. METHODS: The records of patients with pancreatic necrosis admitted to our facility from 2011 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 61 patients with pancreatic necrosis. Six patients with pancreatic necrosis and gas in the retroperitoneum were treated exclusively with clinical support without any type of drainage. Only 2 patients had an APACHE II score >8. The first computed tomography scan revealed the presence of gas in 5 patients. The Balthazar computed tomography severity index score was >9 in 5 of the 6 patients. All patients were treated with antibiotics for at least 3 weeks. Blood cultures were positive in only 2 patients. Parenteral nutrition was not used in these patients. The length of hospital stay exceeded three weeks for 5 patients; 3 patients had to be readmitted. A cholecystectomy was performed after necrosis was completely resolved; pancreatitis recurred in 2 patients before the operation. No patients died. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, infected pancreatic necrosis (gas in the retroperitoneum) can be treated without percutaneous drainage or any additional surgical intervention. Intervention procedures should be performed for patients who exhibit clinical and laboratory deterioration.
OBJECTIVE: to assess the value of computed tomography in the diagnosis of cervical spine and spinal cord injuries in victims of blunt trauma. METHODS: we reviewed the charts of blunt trauma victims from January 2006 to December 2008. We analyzed the following data: epidemiology, mechanism of trauma, transportation of victims to the hospital, intra-hospital care, indication criteria for CT, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of the victims. The victims were divided into two groups: Group I - without cervical spine injury, Group II - with cervical spine injury. RESULTS: we gathered medical records from 3,101 victims. Computed tomography was performed in 1572 (51%) patients, with male predominance (79%) and mean age of 38.53 years in Group I and 37.60 years in Group II. The distribution of trauma mechanisms was similar in both groups. Lesions found included: 53 fractures, eight vertebral listeses and eight spinal cord injuries. Sequelae included: paraplegia in three cases, quadriplegia in eight and brain injury in five. There were seven deaths in Group II and 240 in Group I. The average length of hospital stay was 11 days for Group I and 26.2 days for Group II. CONCLUSION. A CT scan of the cervical spine in victims of blunt trauma was effective in identifying lesions of the cervical spine and spinal cord injuries. Thus, despite the cost of neck CT and the low incidence of lesions identified by it, its indication based on the usual criteria seems justified.
OBJETIVO. Avaliar o valor da tomografia computadorizada no diagnóstico de lesões da coluna e medula cervicais em vítimas de trauma contuso. MÉTODOS. Revisão dos prontuários de vítimas de trauma contuso atendidas de janeiro de 2006 a dezembro de 2008. Foram analisados os seguintes dados: epidemiológicos, mecanismo de trauma, transporte das vítimas para o hospital, atendimento intra-hospitalar, critérios de indicação da TC, diagnóstico, tratamento, e evolução das vítimas em estudo. As vítimas foram distribuídas em dois grupos: Grupo I - sem lesão na coluna cervical; Grupo II - com lesão na coluna cervical . RESULTADOS. Foram analisados os prontuários de 3.101 vítimas. A tomografia computadorizada foi indicada em 1.572 (51%) pacientes, Foi observado predomínio masculino entre as vítimas (79%), com média etária de 38,53 anos no Grupo I e 37,60 anos no Grupo II. A distribuição dos mecanismos de trauma foi semelhante nos dois grupos. Lesões encontradas: 53 fraturas, oito listeses vertebrais e oito lesões medulares. As sequelas incluíram: três paraplegias, cinco tetraplegias e oito sequelas de lesão cerebral. No Grupo II ocorreram sete óbitos ,no Grupo I 240. A duração média de internação hospitalar foi de 11 dias para o Grupo I e 26,2 dias para o Grupo II. CONCLUSÃO. A TC de coluna cervical em vítimas de trauma contuso foi eficaz na identificação de lesões da coluna e medula cervicais. Assim, apesar do custo da TC cervical, e da baixa incidência de lesões por ela identificáveis, a sua indicação baseada nos critérios usuais parece justificável.