Anemopaegma arvense (Vell) Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside) (rutin) and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside) were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no cytotoxic activity of fraction 3 or flavonoids 1 and 2 was observed against the tumor cells tested. However, analysis of the antifungal activity of flavonoids 1 and 2 revealed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, against the Trichophyton rubrum strains tested (wild type and mutant). This study demonstrates for the first time the antifungal activity of isolated flavonoids, validating the same activity for A. arvense.
Anemopaegma arvense pertence à família Bignoniaceae, sendo conhecida popularmente como Catuaba. Para avaliação de sua atividade citotóxica e antimicrobiana, a fração cromatográfica F3 e os flavonoides 1 (quercetina 3-O-α-L-ramnopiranosil-(1→6)-β-D-glucopiranosídeo) (rutina) e flavonoide 2 (quercetina 3-O-α-L-ramnopiranosil-(1→6)-β-D-galactopiranosídeo) foram isolados das folhas de A. arvense. A fração 3 e os flavonoides não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Nenhuma atividade citotóxica foi observada para a fração F3 e para os flavonoides, quando avaliados contra as células tumorais em teste. Entretanto, e considerando a atividade antifúngica, o flavonóide 1 apresentou valor de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de 0,5 mg/mL, enquanto o flavonóide 2, CIM de 0,25 mg/mL contra as cepas selvagem e mutante de Trichophyton rubrum, demonstrando, pela primeira vez, que os flavonoides isolados possuem atividade antifúngica, o que valida a mesma atividade para A. arvense.
Cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide and the number of deaths due to this disease is increasing almost exponentially. In the constant search for new treatments, natural products of plant origin have provided a variety of new compounds to be explored as antitumor agents. Tabernaemontana catharinensis is a medicinal plant that produces alkaloids with expressive antitumor activity, such as heyneanine, coronaridine and voacangine. The aim of present study was firstly to screen the cytotoxic activity of the indole alkaloids heyneanine, coronaridine and voacangine against HeLa (human cervix tumor), 3T3 (normal mouse embryo fibroblasts), Hep-2 (human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma) and B-16 (murine skin) cell lines by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide); and secondly to analyze the apoptotic activity, cell membrane damage and genotoxicity of the compound that showed the best cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell lines tested. Coronaridine was the one that exhibited greater cytotoxic activity in the laryngeal carcinoma cell line Hep-2 (IC50 = 54.47 µg/mL) than the other alkaloids tested (voacangine IC50 = 159.33 µg/mL, and heyneanine IC50 = 689.45 µg/mL). Coronaridine induced apoptosis in cell lines 3T3 and Hep-2, even at high concentrations. The evaluation of genotoxicity by comet assay showed further that coronaridine caused minimal DNA damage in the Hep-2 tumor cell line, and the LDH test showed that it did not affect the plasma membrane. These results suggest that further investigation of coronaridine as an antitumor agent has merit.