Abstract Fruit coproducts fruit, made of peels, seeds and pulp, discarded during the industrial processing, contain lots of health beneficial compounds, however, high moisture content limits its use. Drying is a low cost and great potential alternative for using. This study aimed to evaluate the phenolic compounds content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and total carotenoid, anthocyanins and vitamin C contents of pineapple (Ananas comosus), banana (Musa sp.), lychee (Litchi chinensis) and papaya (Carica papaya) peels, fresh and oven dried at 55 °C. Phenolic compounds, total carotenoids, anthocyanins, vitamin C contents and the antioxidant capacity of flours, were also significantly higher, indicating that the drying process promoted the concentration of these components, and constitute an excellent alternative to use these coproducts as a source of nutrients.
Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the association between dietary intake during pregnancy and different gestational clinical conditions (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having intrauterine growth restriction and a control group) and associated factors. Methods: cross-sectional study nested in a cohort study from 2011 to 2016 that occurred in three hospitals in Porto Alegre (Brazil). Sociodemographic conditions and prenatal were investigated and maternal feeding practices were analyzed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire. To calculate the caloric percentage from food groups, food items were categorized into:unprocessed or minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods. The Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc compared food consumption between the groups and the Poisson regression evaluated the association between the variables. Results: there was no statistical difference in food intake among 303 mothers of different gestational clinical conditions, but diabetic pregnant women had lower caloric contribution value of ultra-processed foods. In addition, pregnant women from all groups showed adequate consumption in relation to the percentage of caloric contribution of macronutrients in the total energy value. Conclusions: there was no difference in energy consumption according to different gestational clinical conditions.In diabetic, smokers and hypertensive pregnant women, associations between total energy intake and different sociodemographic factors were observed between the groups.
Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a associação entre o consumo alimentar gestacional com diferentes condições clínicas das gestantes (hipertensão, diabete, tabagismo, restrição de crescimento intrauterino e um grupo controle) e os demais fatores associados. Métodos: pesquisa transversal aninhada em estudo de coorte realizado de 2011 a2016 em três hospitais de Porto Alegre (Brasil). Foram analisadas, por um questionário estruturado, as condições sociodemográficas e o pré-natal; e práticas alimentares gestacionais pelo Questionário de Frequência Alimentar (QFA). Para o cálculo do percentual calórico referente ao processamento, os itens alimentares foram categorizados em: in natura ou minimamente processados, processados e ultraprocessados. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis com post-hoc de Dunn comparou o consumo alimentar entre os grupos e a regressão de Poisson, a associação entre as variáveis. Resultados: não houve diferença de consumo calórico entre as 303 mães dos diferentes grupos pesquisados, porém as gestantes diabéticas apresentaram menor valor de contribuição vinda dos alimentos ultraprocessados. Além disso, as gestantes de todos os grupos apresentaram consumo adequado em relação ao percentual de contribuição calórica de macronutrientes no valor energético total. Conclusões: não foi encontrada associação entre consumo alimentar e diferentes condições clínicas gestacionais. Nas gestantes diabéticas, tabagistas e hipertensas foram observadas associações da ingestão energética total com diferentes fatores sociodemográficos entre os grupos.
Background: In the perioperative context, a frailty evaluation scale must consider certain characteristics such as validation, execution speed, simplicity, the capacity to measure multiple dimensions and not being dependent on a cognitive or physical test that could not be performed prior to surgery. The test should select patients that could benefit from interventions aimed to improve their postoperative outcomes. Aim: To validate two frailty evaluation scales for the perioperative period. Material and Methods: The Risk Analysis Index with local modifications (RAI-M) were applied to 201 patients aged 73 ± 7 years (49% women) and the Edmonton frailty scale were applied in 151 patients aged 73 ± 7 years (49% women) in the preoperative period. Their results were compared with the Rockwood frailty index. Results: The Edmonton frail scale showed adequate psychometric properties and assessed multiple dimensions through 8 of the 11 original questions, achieving a discrimination power over 80% compared to the Rockwood Index. The RAI- M, demonstrated solid psychometric properties with a tool that examines 4 dimensions of frailty through 15 questions and reviewing the presence of 11 medical comorbidities. This scale had a discrimination power greater than 85% and it was significantly associated with prolongation of the planned hospital stay and mortality. Conclusions: RAI-M is a short and easily administered scale, useful to detect frailty in the preoperative period.
ABSTRACT >Injection molds can fail after a certain period of use, which may compromise the final part’s integrity and quality, but that can be solved using welding repair processes. This work aimed to investigate the influence of AISI P20 molds repaired by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Nd-YAG laser-welding processes on the properties of injection-molded parts with semi-crystalline (polypropylene) and amorphous (polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene and styrene terpolymer) thermoplastics. Welds were prepared by machining 0.8 mm-deep 40 mm x 5 mm grooves to be filled by GTAW and Nd-YAG laser-welding deposits, in order to simulate the repair of AISI P20 molds. All polymers were injected into weld-repaired and unrepaired molds, and then evaluated in terms of microstructure, crystallinity degree, mechanical properties and gloss. The results suggest that the repaired region for both studied welding processes, despite the difference in hardness of the weld region, does not significantly affect the properties of semi-crystalline and amorphous injected polymers.
ABSTRACT HDPE films were treated in the post-discharge region of N2/O2 plasma, powered by a radio frequency power supply. Therefore, in this paper, it was investigated the role of pressure in molding the nano-topography of the polymer. The treatment was carried out in low temperature (T <40 ° C) and time of 5.0 min, in order to preserve the integrity of the polymer bulk. It is well known that the production and recombination rate of reactive species in the plasma depends on the working gas pressure. Results show that the surface nano-roughness is very sensitive to pressure, between 0.01Torr and 0.5Torr, making it possible to use as a fine control parameter for polymer nano-texturing. In the lower pressure treatment it was observed regular nano-peaks and nano-troughs on the surface of the sample. Contact angle measurements show that, in general, the surface becomes hydrophilic after N2/O2 plasma treatment. In addition, samples treated in higher pressure generate oxidized islands by the action of the oxidizing plasma. All samples became more hydrophilic after plasma treatment, maintaining this hydrophilicity characteristic for several days.
RESUMO Filmes de polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD) foram tratados por plasma radiofrequência (RF) de N2/O2. Foi investigado o efeito da pressão do gás de trabalho N2/O2, do plasma, na texturização superficial do filme. O plasma gerado em baixa potência (20W) permite manter a amostra em baixa temperatura (T<40°C) durante o tratamento de superfície. Os resultados mostram que a rugosidade superficial, em escala nanométrica, é muito sensível à pressão do gás de trabalho, entre 0,01Torr e 0,5Torr. Quando o material é tratado em pressão mais baixa (0,01Torr), observa-se a formação de uma estrutura superficial nanométrica de vales e picos com elevada regularidade. Por outro lado, quando o tratamento é feito em pressão mais alta (0,5 Torr), observa-se a formação de uma textura mais grossa na superfície da amostra, além da formação de ilhas de moléculas oxidadas. Em todos as condições estudadas, as amostras tornaram-se hidrofílicas após o tratamento por plasma, mantendo a característica de hidrofilicidade durante vários dias após o tratamento, retornando gradativamente à condição original de molhabilidade.
This work aims to investigate the role of epoxy addition in high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix. The block copolymer polyethylene-b-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG-co-PE) was used as a compatibilizer. The samples were obtained by melt mixing using a torque rheometer. Instrumental nanoindentation was used to determine Young's modulus and nanohardness, thermal properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phase morphology was investigated through transmission and scanning electronic microscopy. The epoxy addition increased HDPE crystallinity by 13% and Young's modulus by 8%. The addition of PEG-co-PE decreased the size of dispersed phase by approximately 50% and improved phase adhesion and homogeneity compared to the blends without block copolymer. The experimental results were compared to numerical results obtained from the use of the homogenization by asymptotic expansion approach. The numerical results presented a fair agreement to the experimental values.
RESUMO: A polpa cítrica está entre os produtos que podem ser utilizados como substitutos na alimentação de ruminantes, diminuindo os gastos e mantendo a qualidade nutricional do alimento fornecido aos animais, porém, esses alimentos devem ser utilizados de forma que não tragam malefícios. Assim, o presente relato visa apresentar a ocorrência de erosão dentária, actinomicose e polioencefalomalácia em ovinos criados e mantidos recebendo alimentação à base de polpa cítrica úmida despectinada na concentração de 50% do volumoso. A actinomicose foi diagnosticada em cinco animais por meio de exame clínico, radiográfico e cultivo microbiológico, e após tratamento três animais foram curados. Já a polioencefalomalácia foi confirmada em dez animais pelos sintomas manifestados, eficiência da terapia instituída em nove animais e exame anatomopatológico de um animal que veio a óbito. De acordo com o observado, deve-se ter cuidado ao utilizar grande quantidade de polpa cítrica úmida como volumoso.
ABSTRACT: The citrus pulp can be used as a substitute in ruminant feed reducing costs and maintaining the nutritional quality of food. However, this compound should be used carefully so as not to cause harm to the animals. The present report aims to describe the occurrence of dental erosion, actinomycosis and polioencephalomalacia in sheep raised and kept with a wet low pectin citrus pulp based diet, composing 50% of roughage. Actinomycosis was diagnosed in five animals through clinical and radiographic examinations and microbiological culture, and, after treatment, three animals were cured. Polioencephalomalacia was confirmed in ten animals by clinical diagnostics, in nine out of ten animals by therapeutic diagnosis, and in one animal by post-mortem anatomopathological examination. According to the observed, we recommend caution when large amounts of citrus pulp are used as bulky food.
ABSTRACT In this paper, nanocomposites with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or graphene nanosheets were prepared using a high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix. Two different processes were employed: a solution method and a melt mixing method. The crystallinity index of the HDPE showed similar levels in nanocomposites after the addition of carbon nanotubes. It can be seen that the preparation process modified the degree of crystallinity of the HDPE matrix with graphene nanosheets. Nanocomposites prepared by the solution method showed a decrease in the crystallinity index. The addition of carbon nanotubes led to an increase of Young's Modulus with an increase in the MWCNT quantity, regardless of the preparation process used, with a 22.8 % increase for composites with 0.5 wt% of CNTs. The nanocomposites with graphene nanosheets exhibited a different behavior with each mixing method. Nanocomposites prepared by the solution method showed a higher Young's Modulus than those prepared by melt mixing. Results of transmission electronic microscopy and field emission scanning electronic microscopy indicated homogeneous dispersion for carbon nanotubes in melt mixing. Graphene nanocomposites showed some agglomerates, with smaller platelets in the nanocomposites prepared by solution mixing compared to that prepared by the melt mixing.
ABSTRACT Conducting polymers presents many potential applications such as biosensors and biofuelcells. However, to be used in those devices, a thin film must be deposited onto a conducting and biocompatible substrate. In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNT) were mixed in a poly (lactic acid) - PLA - matrix with different compositions (from 0.25 to 5.0 %) in order to form conducting composites suitable to the deposition of a conducting polymer. Thermal properties of PLA/CNT composites were evaluated by Thermogravimetry (TG) and Differenctial Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and the electrical properties were evaluated by 2-probe method and by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Thermal analysis showed and influence of CNT quantities on PLA crystallization, which also showed an influence on conductivity of the tested materials. Besides, the conductivity of PLA/NTC 1% film showed similar values of the conducting polymer (Pani) itself.
In this work, nanocomposites with simultaneous dispersion of carbon nanotubes and clays in a high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix were prepared. Two different processes of preparation were employed: solution or melt intercalation. Two different montmorillonite clays were used separately: a natural (MMT-Na) or an organoclay (MMT-30B) and it was used multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Thermal properties were evaluated by DSC and TGA, mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentetion and morphology was investigated by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Alterations of 20% in crystallinity were detected, increases in Young´s modulus up to 12% were observed and up to 20% of increase was observed in Oliver-Pharr hardness. It is possible to explain part of those results based on the state of dispersion observed in our TEM results.
In this paper, the influence of calcium carbonate and slip agent on linear medium density polyethylene (LMDPE) processed by rotational molding was evaluated. LMDPE was dry blended with different CaCO3 masterbatch ratios, erucamide slip agent and then extruded, micronized and rotomolded. The powder samples were characterized using MFI (Melting flow index), dry flow and bulk density. The characterization of rotomolded samples properties was performed by DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry), microscopy analysis, izod impact and tensile test. The results pointed out that the CaCO3 addition modifies the bulk density compared to neat LMDPE, but did not significantly affect the dry flow and MFI. The erucamide addition decreased the dry flow and increased the bulk densities. The porosity degree data showed that CaCO3 addition in the LMDPE increased the quantity of pores. The DSC results showed no significant difference in the crystallinity degree. The behavior of porosity led to a decrease in the mechanical properties of LMDPE with the CaCO3 addition.
Nanocomposites based on epoxy and a mixture of clays and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were produced by casting, and also molded by RTM using glass fibers as reinforcement, yielding a hybrid multi-scale micro/nanocomposite material. Two types of montmorillonite clays were used, natural (MMT-Na) and organophilic (MMT-30B). Higher viscosity was obtained for the mixture with MMT-30B and it was observed that this clay did not perform as well as the MMT-Na in helping the dispersion of the carbon nanotubes (CNT). The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the nanocomposites increased in up to 6 °C with the addition of MWCNT and up to 10 °C with the addition of MMT-30B, differently from the MMT-Na which did not alter the Tg of the material. By transmission electron microscopy, it was verified that more homogeneous dispersions and more intercalated structures were obtained with the MMT-30B than with the MMT-Na. Finally, the low clay content used and, especially, the very low MWCNT content, did not significantly alter the studied flexural properties.
Introduction Over the years the immune system suffers many morphologic and functional alterations, which result in a peak of function in puberty and a gradual decrease in the elderly. Aim Treat patients 55 years or older with allergic rhinitis with immunotherapy and then analyze the response to allergens. Materials and Methods From June 2009 to July 2010, 104 charts of patients 55 years or older with allergic complaints were evaluated. The patients were selected by anamnesis, physical examination, and otorhinolaryngologic exam. The patients had cutaneous test for mites before and after 1 year of sublingual specific immunotherapy. The cutaneous response was classified as negative (absent), light, moderate, or severe. Results Before vaccination, 42 (40.4%) patients were classified as having a severe form of allergy and 62 (59.6%) as having a moderate allergy. After the specific therapy, 40 (38.4%) patients were classified as negative (absent), 37 (35.6%) as light, 19 (18.3%) as moderate, and 8 (7.7%) as severe responses. Conclusion Immunotherapy, a desensitization technique, is indicated in cases which patients cannot avoid the exposure to allergens and in situations where pharmacologic therapy is not ideal. Specific immunotherapy to treat the allergic rhinitis in elderly patients was efficient and had no collateral effects, and in addition to the clinical benefit, improvement in the cutaneous test could also be observed.
Introduction: To determine the etiology of invasive bacterial infection in high risk febrile neutropenia (HRFN) episodes in children with cancer is essential because of the favorable impact on mortality of the early empiric antibiotic treatment. Objective: To determine the etiology of bacteremia in pediatric patients with cancer and HRFN in the National Child Program of Antineoplastic Drugs during the 2004-2009 period, and compare these agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility with the period 1994-1998 described in a previous study. Methods: The causative agents of bacteremia were prospectively recorded in patients less than 18 years of age receiving chemotherapy for cancer with HRFN and positive blood cultures admitted to one of the six hospitals from the Child Program of Antineoplastic Drugs network during the period 2004-2009. Results: 839 episodes of HRFN were identified; 181 blood cultures were positive in the following proportion: gram positive cocci (56%), gram negative bacilli (42%) and yeast (2%).The most common etiologic agents were Staphylococcus coagulase negative (25%), Escherichia. coli (20%), group viridans Streptococcus (14%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9%). Comparing the two periods, the relative frequency of Streptococcus spp increased from 4 to 17%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus decreased from 44 to 25%, showing an increase in their resistance to oxacillin from 55% to 77%. Conclusions: We describe the main etiological agents from HRFN episodes in children with cancer in a 5 years period. This information could help for a better approach in the empirical antimicrobial therapy in this population.
Introducción: Conocer la etiología de los episodios de neutropenia febril de alto riesgo (NFAR) en pacientes con cáncer tiene importancia para implementar tratamientos antimicrobianos ajustados a la epidemiología local, lo que tiene impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Describir la etiología de las bacteriemias en niños con cáncer y NFAR en el período 2004-2009, en la red PINDA de Santiago (Región Metropolitana), Chile, y comparar estos agentes y su susceptibilidad antimicrobiana con un estudio previo realizado en el período 1994-1998. Material y Métodos: Se registraron prospectivamente los agentes causantes de bacteriemia y su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de los pacientes bajo 18 años de edad en tratamiento quimioterápico por cáncer, ingresados con diagnóstico de NFAR a los seis hospitales de la red, durante el período 2004-2009. Resultados: De 839 episodios de NFAR, 181 tuvieron hemocultivos positivos, correspondientes a cocáceas grampositivas (56%), bacilos gramnegativos (42%) y levaduras (2%). Los agentes más frecuentemente aislados fueron: Staphylococcus coagula-sa negativa (25%), Escherichia coli (20%), Streptococcus grupo viridans (14%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%) y Pseudomonas spp (9%). Al comparar los dos períodos de tiempo, destacan los siguientes cambios significativos: disminución en frecuencia relativa de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (desde 44 a 25%), aumento de Streptococcus spp (desde 4 a 17%), y aumento de la resistencia de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa a oxacilina (desde 55 a 77%). Conclusiones: Se dan a conocer los principales agentes etiológicos de los episodios de NFAR y la susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en un período de cinco años. Esto permite racionalizar el manejo antimicrobiano empírico de los episodios de NFAR en esta población.
There is a high content of calcium carbonate in mussel and oyster shells, which can be used in the formulation of medicine, in construction or as filler in polymer materials. This work has as its main objective to obtain calcium carbonate from mussel and oyster shells and used as filler in polypropylene compared their properties with polypropylene and commercial calcium carbonate composites. The shellfish was milling and heated at 500 ºC for 2 hours. The powder obtained from shellfish were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence, particle size distribution and abrasiveness and compared with commercial CaCO3 and mixed with polypropylene. The thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene with CaCO3 obtained from oyster and mussel shells and with commercial CaCO3 were analysed. The results showed that CaCO3 can be obtained from oyster and mussel shell and is technically possible to replace the commercial CaCO3 for that obtained from the shells of shellfish in polypropylene composites.