Abstract The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.
ABSTRACT Tree legumes are an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures. Perceived benefits of tree legumes include provisioning (browse/mast, timber, fuel, human food, natural medicines, and ornamentals), regulating (C sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, soil erosion control and riparian buffers, shade, windbreaks, and habitat for pollinators), supporting (biological N2-fixation, nutrient cycling, soil fertility and soil health, photosynthesis, and primary productivity), and cultural ecosystem services. Tree legumes, however, have not been assessed to the same extent as herbaceous legumes. Once tree legumes are established, they are often more persistent than most herbaceous legumes. There are limitations for extended research with tree legume silvopastures, but extensive research has been done in Africa and Australia and recent efforts have been reported in South America. Economic benefits must be demonstrated to land managers to increase adoption. These benefits are apparent in the research and successes already available, but more long-term research, including the livestock component is necessary. Other factors that reduce adoption include paucity of domesticated germplasm, lag in research/technology, challenges of multipurpose trees and management complexity, challenges to mechanization, dangers of invasive weeds, and social and cultural barriers. In the current scenario of climate change and the need to increase food security, tree legumes are a key component for the sustainable intensification of livestock systems in warm-climate regions.
ABSTRACTThe antimicrobial activity of the myrsinoic acid A isolated from Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult., Primulaceae, and a two semi-synthetics derivatives was tested against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration during evaluation of the antimicrobial activity. The myrsinoic acid A showed no activity against the selected microorganisms but the hydrogenated and acetylated derivatives were active against B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.
Planning to make the hold force control of one hand' s orthosis, an electronic circuit was developed using the actuator electric current (direct-current motor) as feedback. Verifying the occurrence of over currente in the actuator, it is disactivated. This over chain is regulated in accordance with grip force desired. Carried through experiments the force in the artificial tendons was determined and consequently the torque. As result, the grip force control was gotten in accordance with a regulation in the electronic circuit. This work makes possible greater security for the user and equipment' s control.
Visando fazer o controle da força de preensão de uma órtese de mão, foi desenvolvido um circuito eletrônico que usa como feedback a corrente elétrica do atuador, um motor de corrente contínua. Verificando-se a ocorrência da sobre-corrente no atuador este é desativado. Essa sobre-corrente é ajustada de acordo com a força de preensão desejada. Experimentos realizados determinaram a força no tendão artificial e conseqüentemente o torque. Como resultado, foi obtido o controle da força de preensão de acordo com uma regulagem no circuito eletrônico. Este trabalho possibilitará maior segurança do usuário e controle do equipamento.