Abstract The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the action of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on cutaneous wounds, containing skin autografts, in the gluteal region of horses. Seven healthy horses were used. Two 6 x 6cm cutaneous wounds were produced on each side of the gluteal region. Eight days after wound induction, grafts were performed with skin fragments harvested from the neck, as well as the application of PRP, prepared by double-centrifugation protocol. Wounds with autografts on the left side received PRP (group T), and those with autografts on the right side did not receive treatment (group C). Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations were performed, considering the integration of autografts and retraction of wound edges, as well as neovascularization, inflammatory infiltrate, young fibroblasts, collagenization, reepithelization and autografts integration. There was no difference between the groups (P > 0.05) in relation to most macroscopic and microscopic variables. However, neovascularization was significantly greater (p = 0.0191) in group T, on the 14th day after grafting. It is concluded that PRP favors the process of skin repair with autografts in horses, since it increases the neovascularization in the initial phase of wound healing. Furthermore, the PRP seems to positively influence the integration of the skin autografts and the retraction of the wound edges.
RESUMO: Este estudo avaliou a ação do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autólogo em feridas cutâneas, contendo autoenxertos de pele em equinos. Foram utilizados sete equinos hígidos, nos quais foram produzidas duas feridas cutâneas de 6 x 6cm, em cada um dos lados da região glútea. Oito dias após a indução das feridas, foram realizados enxertos com fragmentos de pele colhidos do pescoço, assim como a aplicação do PRP, preparado através de protocolo de dupla centrifugação. As feridas com autoenxertos do lado esquerdo receberam PRP (grupo T), e as com autoenxertos do lado direito não receberam tratamento (grupo C). Foram realizadas avaliações macroscópica e microscópica, considerando as variáveis integração dos autoenxertos e retração das bordas da ferida, além de neovascularização, infiltrado inflamatório, fibroblastos jovens, colagenização, reepitelização e integração dos autoenxertos. Não houve diferença entre os grupos (p > 0,05) em relação à maioria das variáveis macroscópicas e microscópicas. Contudo, a neovascularização foi significativamente maior (P = 0,0191) no grupo T, no 14º dia após a realização da enxertia. Conclui-se que o PRP favorece o processo de reparo da pele com autoenxertos em equinos, já que aumenta a neovascularização na fase inicial da cicatrização da ferida. Ainda, o PRP parece influenciar positivamente a integração dos autoenxertos de pele e a retração das bordas da ferida.
The objective of this work was to carry out a bibliographic survey of secondary metabolites isolated from the Velloziaceae family, creating a bank of compounds. After the bank was created, four prediction models for potentially active compounds against pathogenic microorganisms (Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp.) were obtained trying to identify which metabolites would be more active against the strains. Four sets of compounds with known activity for microorganisms were selected for the construction of predictive models from the CHEMBL database. Another bank with 163 unique molecules isolated from the Velloziaceae family was built. The Volsurf+ v.1.0.7 software obtained the molecular descriptors and Knime 3.5 generated the in silico model. The performances of the internal and external tests were also analyzed. The study contributed through the virtual screening of a bank of metabolites to select several compounds with potential antimicrobial activity, highlighting the biflavonoid amentoflavone which showed potential activity against the four strains.
Objective: To investigate the incidence and homotypic and heterotypic continuity of psychiatric disorders between ages 6 and 11. Methods: In 2004, all live births in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, were recorded (n=4,231). Psychiatric disorders were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). SDQ subscale scores (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer relationship problems) were categorized as normal or abnormal. To examine associations between problems over time, odds ratios were computed using logistic regression. Results: Any SDQ difficulty was observed in 350 children (10.4%, 95%CI 9.4-11.5) at age 6 and 476 (14.2%, 95%CI 13.0-15.4) at age 11, with a higher prevalence among boys at both ages. Between ages 6 and 11, there was a 50 and a 45% increase in the prevalence of emotional and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms, respectively. Among those who had any SDQ difficulty at age 6, that status persisted in 81% at age 11. We found homotypic continuity of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer relationship problems. Conclusions: Our results indicate an increasing incidence of psychiatric disorders in this age group, with rates of disorders and continuity patterns similar to those observed in other studies.
The lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) has been immobilized on chitosan-based hybrid (sodium alginate or carrageenan) matrices activated with glycidol (GLY), epichlorohydrin (EPI) or glutaraldehyde (GLU) groups. Then, the properties of the different biocatalysts have been evaluated and compared with the soluble RML. Thermal stability (at pH 7.0 and 60 °C) was significantly increased when compared to the soluble enzyme: 154-fold for chitosan 5.0% - GLU, 80-fold for chitosan 2.5% - carrageenan 2.5% - GLY and 93-fold for chitosan 2.5% - alginate 2.5% - EPI. The best biocatalyst preparation, which was 154-fold more stable than the soluble enzyme, was obtained when RML was immobilized on chitosan activated with glutaraldehyde 5.0% v/v. According to the results, it was concluded that RML immobilization on chitosan-based hybrid matrices using different chemistries greatly produced biocatalysts with different properties.
The present study investigated the activity of pyrimidine derivatives against Aedes aegypti. Two compounds, 3c and 3d showed excellent larvicide activity. Additionally, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were built using multiple-linear regression and partial least squares with descriptors generated from Dragon and VolSurf+ software, respectively. The best model is obtained with multiple linear regression (MLR), leading to a robust model. Moreover, the QSAR model is validated by means of some internal validation techniques in order to check its reliability, quality and robustness for predicting the larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. The models confirmed that the three-dimensional structure of molecules, steric properties, hydrophobic polar surface area, log partition (logP) and a simple pattern of substituent groups as methyl, methoxy, and succinimide in the pyrimidine derivatives are responsible for the larvicidal activity of the pyrimidine derivatives. Even more, the activity decreases by an electron-withdrawing group in R1 and increases when it is replaced by an aromatic ring activator group. These findings will aid in further studies of new pyrimidine derivatives active against Aedes aegypti.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of snake venoms and purified toxins on the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. The evaluations were performed with 17 crude venoms (13 from Bothrops, 3 from Crotalus, and 1 from Lachesis) and seven toxins (1 from Bothrops and 6 from Crotalus). Antibacterial activity was assessed in MB1 medium containing solubilized treatments (1 μL mL-1). A total of 100 μL bacterial suspension (8.4 x 109 CFU mL-1) was used. After incubation at 28°C, the number of bacterial colonies at 24, 48, and 72 hours after inoculation was evaluated. SDS-PAGE gel at 15% was used to analyze the protein patterns of the samples, using 5 μg protein of each sample in the assay. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and lethal concentration (LC50) values were determined by the Probit method. Venoms and toxins were able to reduce more than 90% of R. solanacearum growth. These results were either equivalent to those of the positive control chloramphenicol or even better. While MIC values ranged from 4.0 to 271.5 μg mL-1, LC50 ranged from 28.5 μg mL-1 to 4.38 mg mL-1. Ten crude venoms (7 from Bothrops and 3 from Crotalus) and two purified toxins (gyroxin and crotamine) are promising approaches to control the phytopathogenic bacterium R. solanacearum.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana in vitro de venenos e toxinas purificadas de serpentes sobre a bactéria fitopatogênica Ralstonia solanacearum. As avaliações foram realizadas em 17 venenos brutos (13 de Bothrops, 3 de Crotalus e 1 de Lachesis) e sete toxinas (1 de Bothrops e 6 de Crotalus). A atividade antibacteriana foi avaliada em meio MB1 que continha os tratamentos solubilizados (1 μL mL-1). Utilizou-se o total de 100 μL de suspensão bacteriana (8,4 x 109 UFC mL-1). Após incubação a 28°C, avaliou-se o número de colônias bacterianas às 24, 48 e 72 horas após a inoculação. O gel SDS-PAGE a 15% foi usado para analisar o perfil proteico das amostras, tendo-se utilizado 5 μg de proteína no ensaio. Além disso, os valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração letal (CL50) foram determinados pelo método Probit. Os venenos e as toxinas foram capazes de reduzir mais de 90% do crescimento de R. solanacearum. Esses resultados foram ou equivalentes aos do controle positivo cloranfenicol ou até melhores. Enquanto os valores de CIM variaram de 4,0 a 271,5 μg mL-1, a CL50 variou de 28,5 μg mL-1 a 4,38 mg mL-1. Dez venenos brutos (7 de Bothrops e 3 de Crotalus) e duas toxinas (giroxina e crotamina) são abordagens promissoras para o controle da bactéria fitopatogênica R. solanacearum.
Abstract This study was aimed at optimizing the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from jussara and blueberry fruits using the response surface methodology (RSM). UAE was found to be more efficient to extract phenolic compounds from both fruits than the conventional extraction. The optimum extraction conditions for the jussara fruits were: extraction time between 30 and 62 min for total anthocyanins and total phenolics, fruit:solvent ratio of 10% and 6% (w/v) for total anthocyanins and total phenolics, respectively. The ethanol concentration was non-significant (p> 0.05). Acidified water was found to be an extracting solvent as efficient as ethanol in the extraction of phenolic compounds from jussara fruits. The optimum extraction conditions for blueberry anthocyanins were: ethanol concentration between 20-70% vol, and fruit: solvent ratio greater than 20% (w/v) within the range studied. The extraction time was not significant (p> 0.05). For total phenolic content: the concentration of ethanol was between 40-80%, and fruit: solvent ratio greater than 20% (w/v) and extraction time over 50 minutes. It was possible to adjust the mathematical model for the coordinates a* (verde vs vermelho) and C* (color saturation) of the jussara extracts.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the application of the human amniotic membrane (HAM) on the inflammatory process, fibroblast proliferation, formation of collagenand reduction of skin wound areas in rats. Methods: Thirty six rats were submitted to a surgical injury induction and divided into two groups (n = 18): group C (control) and T (treated with the HAM). The macroscopic evolution in the wound area and the histological characteristics of the skin samples were evaluated. Results: The regression of the wound area was greater in group T. The histological analysis revealed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the inflammatory infiltrate in group T at all experimental periods compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, the group T presented a significant increase in the proliferation of fibroblasts at 14 and 21 days compared with group C (p < 0.05). Regarding the deposition of mature collagen fibers, there was an increase in the replacement of type III collagen by type I collagen in group T (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Treatment with the HAM reduced the healing time as well as the inflammatory responses, increased the proliferation of fibroblasts, and induced a higher concentration of mature collagen fibers.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of first-generation protease inhibitors for the treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C virus-infected patients at Brazilian reference centers. METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study included hepatitis C virus genotype 1 monoinfected patients treated with Peg-interferon, ribavirin, and either boceprevir (n=158) or telaprevir (n=557) between July 2013 and April 2014 at 15 reference centers in Brazil. Demographic, clinical, virological, and adverse events data were collected during treatment and follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 715 patients, 59% had cirrhosis and 67.1% were treatment-experienced. Based on intention-to-treat analysis, the overall sustained viral response was 56.6%, with similar effectiveness in both groups (51.9% for boceprevir and 58% for telaprevir, p=0.190). Serious adverse events occurred in 44.2% of patients, and six deaths (0.8%) were recorded. Cirrhotic patients had lower sustained viral response rates than non-cirrhotic patients (46.9% vs. 70.6%, p<0.001) and a higher incidence of serious adverse events (50.7% vs. 34.8%, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that sustained viral response was associated with the absence of cirrhosis, viral recurrence after previous treatment, pretreatment platelet count greater than 100,000/mm3, and achievement of a rapid viral response. Female gender, age>65 years, diagnosis of cirrhosis, and abnormal hemoglobin levels/platelet counts prior to treatment were associated with serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: Although serious adverse events rates were higher in this infected population, sustained viral response rates were similar to those reported for other patient cohorts.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of human amniotic membrane (hAM) fragment on inflammatory response, proliferation of fibroblast and organization of collagen fibers in injured tendon. Methods: Sixty rats were divided into 3 groups: C - surgical procedures without tendon lesion and with simulation of hAM application; I - surgical procedures, tendon injury and simulation of hAM application; T - surgical procedures, tendon injury and hAM application. These groups were subdivided into four experimental times (3, 7, 14 and 28 days). The samples underwent histological analysis and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results: Histological analysis at 14 days, the T group showed collagen fibers with better alignment. At 28 days, the I group presented the characteristics described for the T group at 14 days, while this group presented aspects of a mature connective tissue. FT-IR analysis showed a clear distinction among the three groups at all experimental times and groups T and I presented more similarities to each other than to group C. Conclusion: Acute injury of tendon treated with human amniotic membrane fragment showed a faster healing process, reduction in inflammatory response, intense proliferation of fibroblasts and organization of collagen fibers.
Abstract The conservation of boar semen at lower temperatures might contribute to the further expansion of artificial insemination in this species. Egg yolk cryoprotectant properties have already been extensively tested on sperm cryopreservation of several species. This study aimed to test different temperature curves for the conservation of boar semen diluted with coconut milk powdered (ACP®-103) add 7% egg yolk and to verify which one better maintains sperm viability. For this, 36 ejaculates were diluted and stored at 17, 10 and 5 °C. Daily analysis of vigor and motility were performed, and on days D0, D2, and D4 semen was evaluated regarding vitality, morphology, and osmotic resistance. For the statistical analysis we performed the tests of Kruska-Wallis with Dunns post-test (nonparametric data) and ANOVA and Tukey test (parametric data). The storage temperature of 10 °C was the best one to maintain spermatic motility at appropriate levels to be used in an artificial insemination program. Analyses of viability, morphology, and hypoosmotic test did not show statistical difference among the treatments. In conclusion, the best temperature curve was 10 °C with diluted semen previously kept at 17 °C to maintain the viability of sperm cells in pigs for a longer period.
Resumo A conservação do sêmen suíno em temperaturas mais baixas pode permitir uma maior expansão da inseminação artificial nessa espécie. A gema de ovo apresenta propriedades crioprotetoras já amplamente testadas na conservação seminal de diversas espécies. Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar diferentes curvas de temperatura na conservação do sêmen suíno diluído em água de coco em pó (ACP®-103) acrescido de 7% de gema de ovo e verificar qual delas mantém por mais tempo a viabilidade espermática. Para tanto, o sêmen de 36 ejaculados foi diluído e conservado a 17, 10 e 5 °C. Diariamente foram realizadas análises de vigor e motilidade e nos dias D0, D2 e D4 o sêmen foi avaliado quanto à sua viabilidade, morfologia acrossomal e resistência osmótica. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados os testes de Kruska-Wallis, com pós-teste de Dunns (dados não paramétricos) e Anova com teste de Tukey (dados paramétricos). A conservação à temperatura de 10 °C foi a que melhor manteve o vigor espermático e a motilidade em níveis adequados para ser utilizado em um programa de inseminação artificial. As análises de vitalidade, morfologia e teste hiposmótico não apresentaram diferença estatística entre os tratamentos avaliados. Em conclusão, a melhor curva de temperatura foi a de 10 °C com sêmen diluído por manter por um período maior a viabilidade da célula espermática suína.
Abstract Many attempts have been made to improve the conservation of boar semen. Egg yolk is known to have cryoprotectant properties. This study aimed to test different concentrations of egg yolk added to the coconut milk powder extender (ACP-103®), and verify which one is better to maintain sperm viability. The ejaculated (36) were diluted in ACP-103® supplemented with different concentrations of egg yolk (0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7%). The conservation occurred at 17 °C, and vigor and motility analysis were carried out daily. On days 1 (D0), 3 (D2) and 5 (D4) the semen was evaluated for vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance. For statistical nonparametric analysis Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were performed, and for parametric data ANOVA and Tukey test were used. A decrease in vigor and motility was observed in all treatments. Treatments T2, T3 and T4 better maintained spermatic on D0 (2.4±0.8, 2.5±1.1, and 2.8±0.9, respectively), with no significant differences among them. The same was observed for motility (77±15%, 74±23%, and 81±16% on D0). Analyses of vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance did not show statistical difference among treatments. In conclusion, the concentration of egg yolk (7%) added to the ACP-103® can be effectively used as extender to maintain sperm viability.
Resumo Muitas tentativas são feitas para se melhorar a conservação do sêmen suíno, sendo a gema de ovo conhecida por suas propriedades crioprotetoras. Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar diferentes concentrações de gema de ovo em pó (GOP), adicionada ao diluente água de coco em pó (ACP-103®), e verificar qual mantém melhor a viabilidade espermática. Foram diluídos 36 ejaculados em ACP-103®, acrescidos de diferentes concentrações de GOP (0%, 1%, 3%, 5% e 7%) e conservados a 17 °C. Diariamente, foram realizadas análises de vigor e motilidade e nos dias 1 (D0), 3 (D2) e 5 (D4) de conservação foram feitas as de vitalidade, morfologia e resistência osmótica. Utilizou-se o teste estatístico de Kruskal-Wallis e de Dunn's para dados não paramétricos e ANOVA e Tukey para os paramétricos. Queda de vigor e motilidade foi observada em todos os tratamentos. Os GOP-3%, GOP-5% e GOP-7% foram os que melhor mantiveram o vigor espermático em D0 (2,4±0,8; 2,5±1,1 e 2,8±0,9, respectivamente), sem diferenças significativas entre si. O mesmo ocorreu para a motilidade (77±15%, 74±23% e 81±16% em D0). Os resultados das análises de vitalidade, morfologia e resistência osmótica não diferiram. Em conclusão, as concentrações entre 5 e 7% de GOP adicionado ao ACP-103® permitem sua utilização como diluente eficiente para manter a qualidade espermática.
ABSTRACT Guava is a tropical fruit that has a high potential for agroindustrial use, also known antioxidant property mainly attributed to vitamin C and carotenoids content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of food preservatives, individually or combined, on the antioxidant properties of red guava nectar during storage. Nectars added of different additives were stored in the dark for 180 days and evaluated at the processing day and every 90 days for physico-chemical parameters, color, bioactive compounds content, total antioxidant activity (TAA), the microbiologica and sensory quality. Was not observed changes in quality parameters (P>0.05), since the guava nectars were presented in accordance with Standards of Identity and Quality required by Brazilian law. According to data for antioxidante compounds and total antioxidant activity (TAA), can conclude that nectars added sodium metabisulfite and sodium metabisulfite + sodium benzoate showed, after 90 days of storage, a lower reduction in total extractable polyphenols (TEP) and vitamin C content, being the TEP reduction directly correlated with TAA.
RESUMO A goiaba é um fruto tropical que apresenta elevado potencial de aproveitamento agroindustrial, além de conhecida propriedade antioxidante atribuída, principalmente, ao seu conteúdo de vitamina C e carotenóides. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos conservantes alimentares, individualmente ou associados, sobre as propriedades antioxidantes do suco de goiaba vermelha durante o armazenamento. Os sucos adicionados de diferentes conservantes foram armazenados na ausência de luz durante 180 dias e avaliados, no dia do processamento e a cada 90 dias, quanto aos parâmetros físico-químicos, a cor, ao conteúdo dos compostos bioativos, a atividade antioxidante total (AAT), a qualidade microbiológica e sensorial. Durante o armazenamento, não foi observado mudanças (P>0.05) nas características de qualidade dos sucos de goiaba, uma vez que se apresentaram de acordo com os Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade exigidos pela Legislação Brasileira. De acordo com os dados obtidos para os compostos antioxidantes e a atividade antioxidante total (AAT) pode-se concluir que os sucos de goiaba adicionados dos conservantes metabissulfito de sódio e metabissulfito de sódio + benzoato de sódio apresentaram, aos 90 dias de armazenamento, menor percentual de redução no conteúdo de polifenóis totais e de vitamina C, sendo os polifenóis o principal bioativo de influência na AAT.
ABSTRACTCissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, is widely used by Indian tribes and folk medicine to treat various inflammatory disorders, including asthma. Clinical toxicological trials were made with the tea of C. sympodialis, a medicinal plant. The study took place at Lauro Wanderley Hospital/UFPB-PB, where seventeen healthy volunteers were chosen, among those six men and eleven women who orally ingested, during four weeks uninterruptedly, 150 ml of the tea, once a day. Before the first ingestion and after the last one, the participants were subjected to clinical and laboratorial tests for their overall conditions in order to analyze the toxicity of the plant. The results demonstrated that the volunteers neither experience clinical nor laboratorial alterations, as well as no significant adverse effects, apart from little change detected in their hematological tests. Nevertheless, none demonstrated any pathological conditions, just alterations of the normal human being physiology. Therefore, it is concluded that these data complement that obtained during pre-clinical studies and confirm a low toxicity of this plant.