ABSTRACT This cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey presents the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in a population living in 15 Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCFs), after two intra-institutional outbreaks of COVID-19 in the city of Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Residents were invited to participate in the serological survey performed in June and July 2020. Sociodemographic and clinical characterization of the participants as well as the LTCF profile were recorded. Blood samples were collected, processed and serum samples were tested using the rapid One Step COVID-19 immunochromatography test to detect IgM and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2. Among 209 residents, the median of age was 81 years old, 135 (64.6%) were female and 171 (81.8%) self-referred as being white. An overall seroprevalence of 11.5% (95% CI: 7.5% – 16.6%) was found. The highest seroprevalences of 100% and 76.9% were observed in LTCFs that had experienced COVID-19 outbreaks. Most residents with positive immunochromatography tests (70.8%) referred previous contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case. Although there was a relatively low seroprevalence of COVID-19 in the total number of elderly people, this population is highly vulnerable and LTCFs are environments at higher risk for COVID-19 dissemination. A well-established test for COVID-19 policies, the adequate characterization of the level of interaction between residents and the healthcare provider team and the level of complexity of care are crucial to monitor and control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in these institutions.
Abstract Data on the burden of disease and circulation patterns of influenza B lineages for Brazil are limited. This review aims to describe the pattern of influenza B occurrence in Brazil to have a better understanding of its epidemiology and its relevance when considering seasonal influenza vaccine composition. A review of the data including analysis of international and local surveillance data as well as information from online search of databases using Medical Subject Headings terms in conjunction with screening of abstracts from scientific events was performed. Based on international epidemiologic surveillance data, moderate levels of influenza B disease (19%; 2006–2014) were observed. Of these nine years, it was possible to compare data from three years (2007, 2008 and 2013) which have information on the circulating influenza B lineage. Co-circulation of influenza B lineages was observed in all these three influenza seasons, of which, during one season, a high degree of mismatch between the vaccine lineage and the predominant circulating lineage (91.4% ) was observed. Local surveillance data reveal a distinct and dynamic distribution of respiratory viruses over the years. Data from published literature and abstracts show that influenza B is a significant cause of disease with an unpredictable circulation pattern and showing trends indicating reemergence of the B/Victoria lineage. The abstracts report notable levels of co-circulation of both influenza B lineages (2000–2013). Mismatch between the Southern hemisphere vaccine and the most prevalent circulating viruses in Brazil were observed in five influenza seasons. The evidence on co-circulation of two influenza B lineages and mismatched seasons in Brazil indicates the benefit of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in conferring broader seasonal influenza protection. Additionally, improving influenza surveillance platforms in Brazil is important for monitoring disease trends and the impact of introducing seasonal influenza vaccination.
OBJETIVO: Avaliar e validar as informações sobre o sarampo e a rubéola existentes no Sistema Nacional de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) em Campinas, tomando como referência os dados do Sistema de Vigilância Sindrômica de Febre e Exantema (VigiFEx), que funcionou paralelamente ao SINAN no período de maio de 2003 a junho de 2004. MÉTODO: Foram comparados os dados anuais do SINAN de 1999 a 2003 e os dados do SINAN e do VigiFEx para o período de junho de 2003 a maio de 2004. Analisou-se o preenchimento dos campos número, data e município da notificação (variáveis chaves), nome da doença, data dos primeiros sintomas, nome do paciente, data de nascimento e idade, sexo e município de residência, data da investigação, antecedentes vacinais, presença de exantema, data de início do exantema e presença de febre; e casos suspeitos em gestantes, sinais e sintomas, data da coleta da primeira amostra, resultados, coleta de isolamento viral, classificação final, critério de confirmação/descarte, diagnóstico do caso descartado, evolução do caso e data de encerramento. Também foi analisada a concordância dos casos registrados entre as bases de dados. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 211 suspeitas de sarampo ou rubéola na base VigiFEx e 275 na base SINAN 12 meses. Todos os casos registrados apresentaram dados completos em relação às variáveis chaves. Os campos nome do paciente, agravo ou doença e município de residência também tiveram 100% de preenchimento. Mais de 95% de preenchimento foi observado para data de investigação, vacina contra o sarampo, vacina contra o sarampo e a rubéola e vacina contra a rubéola. As demais variáveis vacinais (número de doses e data da última dose) apresentaram elevados percentuais de não-preenchimento, assim como as variáveis exantema, febre e data de início do exantema. Houve inconsistência entre os sistemas, principalmente em relação às variáveis sobre antecedentes epidemiológicos, dados clínicos e conclusão do caso. Os dados do VigiFEx apresentaram melhor qualidade. CONCLUSÕES: É preciso avaliar rotineiramente os sistemas de informação de vigilância, imunização e laboratório para garantir a confiabilidade dos dados, de forma que possam embasar o planejamento de ações em saúde.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and validate the information concerning measles and rubella from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System (BNDNS) (Sistema Nacional de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, or SINAN) for Campinas, a large city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, using as a reference the data from a control system, the Syndromic Surveillance System for Fever and Exanthem (SSSFE) (Sistema de Vigilância Sindrômica de Febre e Exantema, or VigiFEx), which operated from May 2003 through June 2004. METHOD: In our study we compared: (1) annual data from BNDNS for the years 1999 through 2003 and (2) data from BNDNS and data from SSSFE for the period of June 2003 through May 2004. We analyzed the rate of completion for key fields (record number, date of notification, and city of notification) as well as for name of disease, date of first symptoms, name of patient, birth date and age, sex, city of residence, date of investigation, immunization history, presence of exanthem, date at start of exanthem, presence of fever, suspected cases among pregnant women, signs and symptoms, date of collection of first sample, results with the sample, virus isolation, final classification, criteria for confirmation/exclusion of cases, diagnosis of excluded patients, development of the case, and date of closure. The level of agreement between the recorded cases in the two data banks was also analyzed. RESULTS: From June 2003 through May 2004, 211 suspected cases of measles or rubella were identified in SSSFE and 275 in BNDNS. All the records had complete information concerning the three key fields. The rate of completion was also 100% for patient name, disease, and city of residence. The completion rate was higher than 95% for date of investigation, measles vaccine, measles and rubella vaccine, and rubella vaccine. A lower completion rate was found for other vaccination variables (number of doses and date of last dose) and for exanthem, fever, and date of start of exanthem. The two information systems were not completely consistent, particularly in terms of variables related to epidemiologic background, clinical data, and case closure. The quality of the SSSFE data was higher. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic surveillance, immunization, and laboratory information systems need to undergo routine evaluation to ensure that the data are reliable and can support the planning of public health efforts.