The alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete structures is a problem that has concerned engineers and researchers for decades. This reaction occurs when silicates in the aggregates react with the alkalis, forming an expanded gel that can cause cracks in the concrete and reduce its lifespan. The aim of this study was to characterize three coarse granitic aggregates employed in concrete production in northeastern Brazil, correlating petrographic analysis with the kinetics of silica dissolution and the evolution of expansions in mortar bars, assisted by SEM/EDS, XRD, and EDX. The presence of grains showing recrystallization into individual microcrystalline quartz subgrains was associated with faster dissolution of silica and greater expansion in mortar bars. Aggregates showing substantial deformation, such as stretched grains of quartz with strong undulatory extinction, experienced slower dissolution, with reaction and expansion occurring over longer periods that could not be detected using accelerated tests with mortar bars.
Doped lanthanum chromite-based ceramics are the most widely used interconnector material in solid fuel cells (SOFC) since they exhibit significant electrical and thermal conductivity, substantial corrosion resistance and adequate mechanical strength at ambient and high temperatures. The disadvantage of this material is its high cost and poor ductility. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical and oxidation behavior of a stainless steel (AISI 444) with a LaCrO3 deposition on its surface obtained through spray pyrolisis. Coated and pure AISI 444 materials were characterized by mechanical properties, oxidation behavior, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Results indicated that the coated material displays better oxidation behavior in comparison to pure stainless steel, but no improvement in mechanical strength. Both materials indicate that deformation behavior depends on testing temperatures.
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) - PHBV is a biodegradable polyester which has been studied as an option for the production of disposable goods. Attapulgite is a fibrous clay mineral. The aim of this work was to produce and characterize renewable resource derived-nanocomposites based on PHBV and organophilic attapulgite (MAT). The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM and thermal analysis. It was observed reduction in degree of crystallinity, in melting and glass transition temperatures and in thermal stability of polymer due to the addition of clay to PHBV matrix. The best results were obtained for PHBV films containing 3 and 5% MAT. These films presented a slight increase in processing window and decrease in crystalline temperature and in degree of crystallinity as compared to pure PHBV.
Characterization of fish scales of Leporinus elongatus and their application in the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions are described. It was observed that the scales are mainly formed by hydroxyapatite and type I collagen. Adsorption of Cu(II) was performed using batch experiments at 25 0C. The ANOVA statistical results have shown that the Langmuir model was successful applied to determine the maximum adsorption capacity of 2.686 x10-4 mol g-1 and the Langmuir equilibrium parameter (b) of 168.8 L mol-1. The Langmuir separation parameter, R L, has shown favorable adsorption of Cu(II) on the scales.
Fundamental aspects of the conception and applications of ecomaterials, in particular porous materials in the perspective of green chemistry are discussed in this paper. General recommendations for description and classification of porous materials are reviewed briefly. By way of illustration, some case studies of materials design and applications in pollution detection and remediation are described. It is shown here how different materials developed by our groups, such as porous glasses, ecomaterials from biomass and anionic clays were programmed to perform specific functions. A discussion of the present and future of ecomaterials in green chemistry is presented along with important key goals.