Abstract Background: Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy in dermatology. The aspects related to training, usage profile, or perceptions of usefulness of dermoscopy among dermatologists in Brazil have not been described. Objectives: To evaluate the profile of the use of dermoscopy and the perception of the impact of the technique on clinical practice. Methods: The Brazilian Society of Dermatology invited all members to complete an online form with 20 items regarding demographic data, dermatological assistance, use of dermoscopy, and perceptions of the impact of the technique on clinical practice. The proportions between the categories were compared by analysis of residuals in contingency tables, and p-values < 0.01 were considered significant. Results: The answers from 815 associates (9.1% of those invited to participate) were assessed, 84% of whom were female, and 71% of whom were younger than 50 years of age. The use of dermoscopy was reported in the daily practice of 98% of dermatologists: 88% reported using it more than once a day. Polarized light dermoscopy was the most used method (83%) and pattern analysis was the most used algorithm (63%). The diagnosis and follow-up of melanocytic lesions was identified as the main use of the technique, while the benefit for the diagnosis of inflammatory lesions was acknowledged by less than half of the sample (42%). Study limitations: This was a non-randomized study. Conclusion: Dermoscopy is incorporated into the clinical practice of almost all Brazilian dermatologists, and it is recognized for increasing diagnostic certainty in different contexts, especially for pigmented lesions.
Abstract Melanonychia is the change in the coloration of the nail plate resulting from the deposition of melanin. Among its causes are melanocytic hyperplasia, melanocytic activation and nail melanoma. Subungual follicular inclusions are histological findings of unknown etiology, possibly related to trauma. We present three cases of melanonychia of different etiologies with subungual follicular inclusions, an association that has not been well described and with an indefinite pathogenesis.
Abstract: Atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini is a skin disorder affecting dermal collagen and is clinically characterized by well-defined plaques of depressed skin. Histopathological changes are subtle, and in most cases, the diagnosis requires a comparative study with healthy skin from the same anatomical site. High frequency ultrasound is a useful imaging method for diagnosis of atrophic skin changes. A case is presented in which ultrasound can support the clinical and the histopathological diagnosis of atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini.
Abstract: Background: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive complementary diagnostic method largely used in dermatology. Feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility are key elements for a diagnostic method to be useful, hence the importance of the terminology used to describe dermoscopic criteria. Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of the English descriptive terminology proposed for dermoscopic criteria at the 3rd Consensus Meeting of the International Dermoscopy Society in Brazilian Portuguese. Methods: Nine Brazilian dermatologists independently analyzed the translation of sixty dermoscopic descriptive terms proposed at the 3rd Consensus Conference of the International Society of Dermoscopy. Interobserver agreement index was analyzed using the Fleiss' kappa test. Results: The interobserver agreement of the descriptive terminology in Brazilian Portuguese was considered weak (κ = 0.373; p < 0.05). The interobserver agreement of the descriptive terminology used to describe morphology and arrangement of vascular structures was considered moderate (κ = 0.43; p < 0.05). Study limitations: Our study limitations include the small number of participants and limited regional representation (only 2 out of 5 Brazilian regions were represented). Conclusions: The descriptive English terminology proposed at the 3rd Consensus Conference of the International Dermoscopy Society revealed weak reproducibility and the morphology and arrangement of vascular structures presented moderate reproducibility in Brazilian Portuguese. Despite small regional differences, metaphoric terminology in dermoscopy seems to be the most useful and reproducible system to be adopted in Brazilian Portuguese.
Abstract The occurrence of multiple primary melanomas in a single individual is rare. Most commonly, malignant melanocytic lesions subsequent to the initial diagnosis of melanoma are secondary cutaneous metastases. We report a patient with gastrointestinal bleeding from gastric metastasis of cutaneous melanoma. During clinical evaluation and staging, we discovered a brain metastasis associated with 3 synchronous primary cutaneous melanomas. We suggest the research on the mutation in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (INK4a) in such cases. We also emphasize the importance of clinical examination and dermoscopy of the entire tegument, even after a malignant melanocytic lesion is identified.
Abstract: Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. The extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. The coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. We report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagnosis.
Abstract: Ultrasonography is a method of imaging that classically is used in dermatology to study changes in the hypoderma, as nodules and infectious and inflammatory processes. The introduction of high frequency and resolution equipments enabled the observation of superficial structures, allowing differentiation between skin layers and providing details for the analysis of the skin and its appendages. This paper aims to review the basic principles of high frequency ultrasound and its applications in different areas of dermatology.
AbstractThe present essay is aimed at getting the radiologist familiar with the basic histological skin structure, allowing for a better correlation with sonographic findings. A high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography apparatus was utilized in the present study. The histological analysis was performed after the skin specimens fixation with formalin, inclusion in paraffin blocks and subsequent staining with hematoxylin-eosin. The authors present a literature review showing the relationship between sonographic and histological findings in normal cutaneous tissue, and discuss the technique for a better performance of the sonographic scan. High-frequency ultrasonography is an excellent tool for the diagnosis of different skin conditions. However, as this method is operator-dependent, it is crucial to understand the normal skin structure as well as the correlation between histological and sonographic findings.
ResumoO objetivo deste trabalho é familiarizar o radiologista com a estrutura histológica cutânea, o que torna possível uma melhor correlação dos achados ultrassonográficos da pele. Para o exame radiológico foi utilizado aparelho de ultrassom de alta frequência (22 MHz). O exame histológico foi realizado após fixação do material em formol, inclusão em parafina e coloração com hematoxilina-eosina. Os autores fazem uma revisão da literatura, demonstram a relação dos achados ultrassonográficos e histológicos do tecido cutâneo normal e discutem a técnica para o melhor aproveitamento do exame ultrassonográfico da pele. O ultrassom de alta frequência representa uma excelente ferramenta no diagnóstico das diferentes alterações cutâneas. Como o método é operador-dependente, é crucial o perfeito entendimento da pele normal e sua equivalência histológica/ultrassonográfica.
AbstractCollision tumors are characterized by the coexistence of two cancers in the same anatomical site and its pathogenesis remains controversial. Although uncommon, the association of basal cell carcinoma and melanocytic nevus is the most common among combinations of skin tumors. Even rarer is the association of two malignant tumors. We report a case of tumor collision representing melanoma and basosquamous cell carcinoma, a combination not previously described in the literature, since there are no reported cases of melanoma with this type of basal cell carcinoma.
The surgical approach to lentigo maligna is a challenge to dermatologists, given the difficulty of clinical delimitation of borders. We report here a case of a 69-year-old female patient presenting with brownish macules on her face, since 10 years ago, with histopathological diagnosis of lentigo maligna. The surgical management employed was excision of visible borders with the contoured technique and immediate submission of these borders for histopathological analysis before complete excision of the tumor. This technique is a variant of staged excision, with lower rates of recurrence and acceptable aesthetic results.
The recent development of high-frequency ultrasound, associated with the improved sensitivity in color Doppler, enabled the identification of various skin structures and layers. In basal cell carcinoma, the 22 MHz frequency ultrasound permits the delimitation of tumor margins, while color Doppler, determines its vascularization. We present two cases in which the association of both exams allowed an in vivo analysis of the tumor's morphology, size, thickness and vascularization, thus contributing to a better pre-operative evaluation.
We present a case of bullosis diabeticorum. It is a rare disorder, probably underdiagnosed, associated with long-term diabetes mellitus. Its etiology remains unclear. It is characterized by tense blisters, with serous content, recurrent and spontaneous on normal skin especially in the acral regions. Displays self-limiting course. No specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of this bullous disease exist. Clinical and conservative management to prevent secondary infection reduces morbidity in diabetic patients.
Apresenta-se um caso de bulose diabeticorum, que consiste em uma desordem rara de etiologia ainda incerta, provavelmente subdiagnosticada, associada ao diabetes mellitus de longa evolução. Caracteriza-se por bolhas tensas, recorrentes, de conteúdo seroso e aparecimento espontâneo sobre pele pouco inflamada, especialmente nas regiões acrais, que evolui com curso autolimitado. Não há testes laboratoriais específicos para o diagnóstico desta bulose. O reconhecimento clínico e o manejo conservador para evitar infecção secundária reduz a morbidade nos pacientes diabéticos.
Mammary Paget's disease is a rare intraepithelial adenocarcinoma, located on the nipple/areola complex, highly associated with breast cancer. Although the international literature emphasizes the dermatoscopic pattern of mammary Paget's disease pigmented variant, the authors describe the dermoscopic findings of classical Paget's disease and demonstrate the presence of chrysalis-like structures, criteria recently described in the literature and not yet reported in Paget's disease.
Doença de Paget mamária é considerada um adenocarcinoma intra-epitelial raro, localizado no complexo mamilo-aréola,com alta associação ao câncer de mama. Apesar da literatura mundial realçar o padrão dermatoscópico da doença de Paget mamária variante pigmentada os autores descrevem os achados dermatoscópicos da doença de Paget clássica realçando a presença das estruturas crisálida-símiles,critério recentemente descrito na literatura mundial e ainda não relatado na Doença de Paget.
The incidence of cutaneous metastases is approximately 0.7 to 10%, while in metastases of urothelial origin the incidence is less than 1%. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common of the genitourinary tract tumors. Sarcoma of the bladder is rare (0.3%). It can involve multiple clinical presentations, with a nodule being the most common. Diagnosis is made by a combination of medical history, clinical examination and histopathology. The treatment is surgical. The prognosis is very uncertain and depends on a multidisciplinary approach.
A incidência de metástases cutâneas é de, aproximadamente, 0,7 a 10%. As de origem urotelial correspondem a menos de 1%. Dos tumores do trato genitourinário, o carcinoma de células transicionais é mais comum. O sarcoma de bexiga é raro, correspondendo a 0,3%. Podem ter múltiplas apresentações clínicas, sendo o nódulo mais comum. O diagnóstico é realizado pela anamnese, quadro clínico e histopatologia. O tratamento é cirúrgico. O prognóstico é muito reservado e depende de um acompanhamento multidisciplinar.
Acquired melanocytic lesions resembling malignant melanoma have been described in all major categories of Epidermolysis bullosa and referred to as "Epidermolysis bullosa nevi''. They easily induce to diagnostic error, although no malignant transformation has been reported. We report the development of a large acquired melanocytic nevus at a site of recurrent blisters in a 5-year-old child with Epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The global dermoscopic pattern was suggestive of benignity, and the histopathological findings were compatible with a compound melanocytic nevus. This is the first published case of Epidermolysis bullosa nevi in Brazilian literature. Despite their benign behavior, we emphasize the importance of regular clinical and dermoscopic monitoring, since a malignant course still cannot be totally excluded
Lesões melanocíticas adquiridas assemelhando-se à melanoma têm sido descritas nos principais grupos da Epidermólise bolhosa, e referidas como "Nevos da Epidermólise bolhosa''. Induzem facilmente ao erro diagnóstico, apesar de nenhuma transformação maligna ter sido descrita. Relatamos o desenvolvimento de um nevo melanocítico adquirido grande no local de bolhas recorrentes em uma criança de 5 anos portadora de Epidermólise bolhosa simples. O padrão dermatoscópico global foi sugestivo de benignidade, e os achados histopatológicos foram compatíveis com um nevo melanocítico composto. Este é o primeiro caso de um Nevo da Epidermólise bolhosa publicado na literatura brasileira