Abstract Purpose: To analyze the topical effects of Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa L.) in induced myositis in rats. Methods: Thirty six male rats divided into three groups: Control group (C), induced myositis group (MI) and induced myositis group reated with Mauritia flexuosa L. (MT). After inducing myositis with 1% acetic acid, was topically applied 0.5 ml of Mauritia flexuosa L.extract on the posterior region of the right gastrocnemius muscle in animals belonging to group MT, for 7 and 14 days. Results: The neutrophil number there was statistically significant difference, after 7 and 14 days, between groups C and MI (p <0.001) (p<0.01). The group MT there was a significant difference in relation to MI group in both experimental times with (p<0.001). The number of fibroblasts in the 14 days showed that when comparing the groups M and MT the differences were also significant (p<0.001). As for the DLL, in 7 days, there was a significant difference between group C and MI group (p <0.001). When considering the MT group, there was a significant difference in relation to the MI group (p <0.001). Conclusion: The extract of Mauritia flexuosa L. leaves lessened acute and chronic inflammation, increased fibroblast proliferation and reduced macroscopically edema.