Abstract The possible interference of resistant pest’s populations to insecticides in natural enemies in the action thas not been clarified yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) performance on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs with resistance frequency to the Metaflumizone over six generations of product exposure. Egg cards (2.0 x 7.0 cm) containing eggs from two populations of S. frugiperda, (resistant to Metaflumizone and the other susceptible), were exposed to T. pretiosum females for 24 hours in free-choice and no-choice testing in three generations (G1, G4, and G6). A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replications, each consisting of an egg card (experimental unit) containing 20 eggs. The parameters evaluated were: parasitism (%), emergence (%), sex ratio, number of emerged parasitoids per egg and males/females longevity. ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤ 0.05) were applied on the results. Results showed a reduction in parasitism [41.0% (G1) and 28.4% (G4)], egg emergence (17.5%) and parasitoids/egg [16.2 (G4) and 17.2 (G6)] in eggs originating from the population with resistance frequency. Females emerging from G6 populations eggs without exposure to Metaflumizone had greater longevity (3.5 days more) than the resistant population. The sex ratio and male longevity were not affected. The results indicate a reduction in T. pretiosum activity if S. frugiperda populations have some frequency of resistance to Metaflumizone.
Resumo A possível interferência de populações de pragas resistentes na ação de inimigos naturais ainda não foi esclarecida. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) com frequência de resistência à Metaflumizona ao longo de seis gerações de exposição ao produto. Cartelas (2,0 x 7,0 cm) com ovos de duas populações de S. frugiperda, (resistente à Metaflumizona e outra suscetível), foram expostas às fêmeas de T. pretiosum por 24 horas em condições de livre escolha e sem chance de escolha por três gerações (G1, G4 e G6). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 25 repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por uma cartela (unidade experimental) contendo 20 ovos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: parasitismo (%), emergência (%), razão sexual, número de parasitoides emergidos por ovo e longevidade de machos e fêmeas. ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P≤ 0,05) foram aplicados aos dados coletados. Os resultados mostraram redução do parasitismo [41,0% (G1) e 28,4% (G4)], emergência de ovos (17,5%) e parasitoides/ovo [16,2 (G4) e 17,2 (G6)] em ovos oriundos da população com frequência de resistência. As fêmeas emergidas de ovos da população G6 sem exposição à Metaflumizona, tiveram maior longevidade (3,5 dias a mais) do que a população exposta ao inseticida. A razão sexual e a longevidade de machos não foram afetadas. Os resultados indicam uma redução na atividade de T. pretiosum se as populações de S. frugiperda apresentarem alguma frequência de resistência à Metaflumizona.
Abstract Microbiological studies of the sanitary and health status of psittacine birds that will be reintroduced is important in evaluating whether these animals act as carriers of pathogenic agents to other animals and humans. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a faster and more accurate method to identify bacteria than conventional microbiology methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of psittacines housed in captivity, by assessment of Gram-negative bacteria from fecal microbiota through MALDI- TOF MS identification. The results indicate high frequency of Gram-negative bacteria in feces (96.5%), especially from the Enterobacteriaceae family (88.7%). The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli (39.0%), Proteus vulgaris (12.2%), Klebsiella spp. (12.1%) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (8.7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermannii were isolated with lower frequency. . All these agents are potentially pathogenic for parrots and can cause systemic infections in other animals and humans. These findings reinforce that MALDI- TOF MS proved to be a rapid and accurate method of identification of the microorganism and evaluation of the health status of psittacines, providing relevant data to assist decision-making regarding the sanitary protocols in wildlife centers, and possible future reintroduction of wild birds.
Resumo Estudos microbiológicos da sanidade de psitacídeos que serão reintroduzidos são importantes para avaliar se esses animais atuam como portadores de agentes patogênicos para outros animais e humanos. A espectrometria de massa por ionização/dessorção de matriz assistida por laser/tempo de vôo (MALDI-TOF MS) é um método mais rápido e preciso para identificar bactérias na comparação com métodos convencionais de microbiologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado de saúde de psitacídeos cativos, identificando bactérias Gram-negativas da microbiota fecal por MALDI -TOF MS. Os resultados indicaram alta frequência de bactérias Gram-negativas nas fezes (96,5%), principalmente da família Enterobacteriaceae (88,7%). As mais prevalentes foram Escherichia coli (39,0%), Proteus vulgaris (12,2%), Klebsiella spp. (12,1%) e Raoultella ornithinolytica (8,7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. e Escherichia hermannii foram isolados com menor frequência. Todos esses agentes são potencialmente patogênicos para os papagaios e podem causar infecções sistêmicas em outros animais e seres humanos. Esses achados reforçam que o MALDI- TOF MS é um método rápido e preciso de identificação do microrganismo e avaliação do estado de saúde dos psitacídeos, fornecendo dados relevantes para auxiliar na tomada de decisões sobre os protocolos sanitários em centros de triagem de animais selvagens e sobre a possibilidade de reintrodução futura.
Abstract Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.
Resumo O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.
Abstract Vegetation cover may show diversity and composition patterns of the soil invertebrate community, as a function of litter quantity and quality in a specific habitat. The objective of this work was to characterize the distribution of edaphic fauna in different monocultures. The study was carried out at Chapada Grande farm in Regeneração, PI. Four monoculture areas were chosen: no-tillage soybean, eucalyptus, pasture, and a preserved native cerrado forest. Soil fauna was collected in a dry and wet period by pitfall traps containing 4% formaldehyde. The edaphic fauna was evaluated by the number of individuals per trap per day, average richness and richness, Shannon diversity index and Pielou uniformity index. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and multivariate Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The highest number of individuals per day trap and of average richness were registered in the pasture, eucalyptus and forest areas in both periods, while soybean showed lower values with predominance of Coleoptera and Formicidae groups. The pasture and forest areas showed of higher Shannon index values in the two evaluated seasons, probably due to higher contributions organic residues in the soil that favors the shelter, feeding and reproduction conditions. Regarding the Pielou index, the soybean system showed higher values in this variable. The Aranae, Coleoptera, Formicidae and Diptera groups predominated in the humid period, while Coleoptera and Formicidae predominated in the dry period. Systems that generate greater accumulation of residues harbor a greater diversity of invertebrates of the edaphic fauna. Seasonality had an effect on all variables analyzed and the wet period showed more expressive values.
Resumo A cobertura vegetal pode mostrar padrões de diversidade e composição da comunidade de invertebrados do solo, em função da quantidade e qualidade da serapilheira em determinado habitat específico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a distribuição da fauna edáfica em diferentes monocultivos. O estudo foi realizado na fazenda Chapada Grande no município de Regeneração, PI. Foram escolhidas quatro áreas de monocultivos: soja em sistema de plantio direto, eucalipto, pastagem, além de uma mata nativa de cerrado preservada. Foram realizadas coletas da fauna do solo, em período seco e úmido, por meio de armadilhas do tipo pitfall contendo 4% de formol. A fauna edáfica foi avaliada pelo número de indivíduos por armadilha por dia, riqueza e riqueza média, índice de diversidade de Shannon e índice de uniformidade de Pielou. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e à análise multivariada de Componentes Principais (ACP). O maior número de indivíduos por armadilha dia e de riqueza média foram registrados nas áreas pastagem, eucalipto e mata nos dois períodos, enquanto que a soja mostrou valores inferiores com predomínio dos grupos Coleoptera e Formicidae. As áreas de pastagem e mata mostraram maiores valores de índice de Shannon nas duas épocas avaliadas provavelmente em função de maiores aportes de resíduos orgânicos no solo que favorece as condições de abrigo, alimentação e reprodução. Em relação ao índice de Pielou o sistema com soja mostrou maiores valores nessa variável. Os grupos Araneae, Coleoptera, Formicidae e Diptera predominaram no período úmido, enquanto Coleoptera e Formicidae se destacaram no período seco. Sistemas que geram maior acúmulo de resíduos abrigam uma maior diversidade de invertebrados da fauna edáfica. A sazonalidade apresentou efeito sobre todas as variáveis analisadas sendo que o período úmido mostrou valores mais expressivos.
ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on clinical and surgical practice, educational activities, health and lifestyle behavior of Brazilian urology residents. Materials and Methods: A web-based survey was sent to 468 Brazilian urology residents from postgraduate years (PGY) 3 to 5 to collect data on clinical practice and training after 4 months of COVID-19. We also assessed health-related and behavior changes, rate of infection by SARS-CoV-2, deployment to the front line of COVID-19, residents’ concerns, and access to personal protective equipment (PPE). Results: Massive reductions in elective and emergency patient consultations, diagnostic procedures and surgeries were reported across the country, affecting PGY 3 to 5 alike. Most in-person educational activities were abolished. The median damage to the urological training expected for 2020 was 6.0 [3.4 – 7.7], on a scale from 0 to 10, with senior residents estimating a greater damage (P< 0.001). Educational interventions developed included online case-based discussions, subspeciality conferences and lectures, and grand rounds. Most senior residents favored extending residency to compensate for training loss and most younger residents favored no additional training (p< 0.001). Modifications in health and lifestyle included weight gain (43.8%), reduced physical activity (68.6%), increased alcoholic intake (44.9%) and cigarette consumption (53.6%), worsening of sexual life (25.2%) and feelings of sadness or depression (48,2%). Almost half were summoned to work on the COVID-19 front-line and 24.4% had COVID-19. Most residents had inadequate training to deal with COVID-19 patients and most reported a shortage of PPE. Residents’ concerns included the risk of contaminating family members, being away from residency program, developing severe COVID-19 and overloading colleagues. Conclusions: COVID-19 had a massive impact in Brazilian urology residents´ training, health and lifestyle behavior, which may reflect what happened in other medical specialties. Studies should confirm these findings to help developing strategies to mitigate residents’ losses.
ABSTRACT This study evaluates the dynamics of heat zones in the load and its relationship with the stress of pigs during transport. Four journeys of 170 km were monitored, recording the physiological variables of 192 animals (48 per journey), namely rectal temperature (RT), body temperature (BT), respiratory rate (RR), blood lactate concentrations and salivary cortisol. Heat zones and ventilation patterns were characterized by the spatial variability of the enthalpy and the Computational Fluid Dynamics of the load. The formation of a thermal core was observed in the frontal region of the load, which extended through the lower (LD) and upper (UD) decks. Pigs transported in the LD had higher means of RR (UD = 89 and LD = 94 breaths/min), and salivary cortisol (UD = 33.84 and LD = 34.92 ng/mL). The pigs transported in the UD presented the highest mean BT (UD = 38.9 and LD = 38.1 °C) and lactate (UD = 61.63 and LD = 58.26 mg/dL). Pigs transported in the LD of the load were more susceptible to thermal stress, while pigs transported in the UD showed greater physical stress and muscle exhaustion.
Objective: To investigate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and entrepreneurial profiles and the effects of entrepreneurial characteristics in individuals who screen positive for ADHD and self-identify as entrepreneurs. Methods: We sent 4,341 questionnaires by e-mail to applicants for a career development course for entrepreneurs. We used the propensity score covariate adjustment to balance differences between included and excluded individuals. ADHD symptoms were evaluated with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. The Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation scale was used to assess the entrepreneurial profile of the participants. Impairment from ADHD symptoms was assessed with the Barkley Functional Impairment Scale. Results: Those who screened positive for ADHD had higher risk-taking scores (p-value = 0.016) and lower proactivity (p-value = 0.001) than those who screened negative. Higher inattention scores were related to lower proactivity (p-value < 0.001), while higher hyperactive symptom scores were related to a more generalized entrepreneurial profile (p-value = 0.033). Among ADHD-positive participants, entrepreneurial profile scores were not significantly associated with company profits or impairment. Conclusions: Inattention symptoms were related to less proactivity, whereas hyperactive symptoms were positively associated with a general entrepreneurial orientation. ADHD-positive individuals had a higher risk-taking profile, and these characteristics did not negatively impact their lives.
This study describes a virtual screening performed for two series of selenides (28 compounds), derived from N-phenylacetamides chlorides and 7-chloro-quinoline, to determine their potential for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani. Seven compounds were predicted as potential leishmanicides; therefore, they were synthesized from elemental selenium, as a precursor for the production of NaHSe, and subsequent reactions with 4,7-dichloro-quinoline and N-phenylacetamides chlorides were performed. The compounds were characterized by infrared (IR), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and sent for in vitro cytotoxicity tests against L. amazonensis and were found to be active and selective, and two compounds presented half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 5.67 and 10.81 µg mL-1. They also presented good interaction energies in the docking study, suggesting that may exert their effects by inhibiting the N-myristoyltransferase and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase enzymes in parasites.
A novel free PhotoMetrix UVC is proposed for both the operation of a universal serial bus video camera (UVC) and multivariate image analysis, allowing a full solution for point-of-use analysis. A UVC was placed in an open-source 3D-printed chamber illuminated by a white light-emitting diode (LED) with controlled intensity of light. The digital images captured were converted into red, green, and blue (RGB) histograms, and regression models were used within the app. As a proof-of-concept, four adulterants in raw milk samples were determined. The coefficient of determination (R2Cal) for all models was higher than 0.99, and no significant differences (p < 0.05) between the measured and predicted values were identified. The root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) were satisfactory, with values less than 0.1 and 0.7 g L-1, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 90 to 120% in spiked milk samples, and partial least square (PLS) models showed root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.28, 0.33, 0.48 and 0.39 g L-1 for chloride, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and starch, respectively. The PhotoMetrix UVC app was feasible for the colorimetric chemical analysis using a smartphone improving the applicability, mobility, and usability.
The present work aimed to direct amino acid (AA) sensing by quantum dots (QD) and development of an analytical method for potential fast clinical tests. Notably, AA with a positive charge or neutral polar chains, namely L-histidine (His) and L-threonine (Thr), responded to glutathione-coated CdTe (GSH-CdTe) (ΔF ≤ 90%, variation of fluorescence intensity). However, in ammoniacal buffer (0.25 mol L-1) at pH 8.0, 2.2 nm GSH-CdTe responded only to His. Static quenching with complex association constant (Ksv) varying from 2.81 to 0.94 (10 L mol-1) as well as van der Waals forces and/or hydrogen bonding were predicted for His-QD quenching mechanism and binding type. Additionally, thermodynamic parameters as ΔH = -76.5 kJ mol-1 (enthalpy), ΔS = -227.4 J K-1 mol-1 (entropy) and ΔG from -9.8 until -6.4 kJ mol-1 (Gibbs free energy) at 20 to 35 °C were estimated by van’t Hoff equation. Under optimal conditions, the developed method presented a linear range from 0.42 to 35 mmol L-1 (with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9970, n = 7), good precision (relative standard deviations (RSD) < 2.5% for 2.5 and 20 mmol L-1; n = 6) and limit of detection 1.6 × 10-4 mol L-1 (0.025 mg mL-1). Recovery tests were performed on artificial urine and human urine samples with recoveries ranging from 78.7 to 127.6%.
In the present work five acetylene derivatives (1-5), including three unknowns (1, 3 and 4), were isolated from seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae). The structures of isolated compounds were determined as docos-13-yn-21-enoic acid (1), 3-hydroxy-4-methylene-2-(eicos-11’-yn-19’-enyl)but-2-enolide (2), 3-hydroxy-4-methylene-2-(octadec-9’-yn-17’-enyl)but-2-enolide (3), 3-hydroxy-4-methylene-2-(hexadec-7’-yn-15’-enyl)but-2-enolide (4), and (2S,3R,4R)-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(eicos-11’-yn-19’-enyl)butanolide (5) by analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) data. Moreover, all isolated compounds demonstrated selectivity towards intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum, especially 2-4 with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 9.2, 10.4 and 11.0 µM, respectively, indicating superior activity of that determined to positive control miltefosine (IC50 of 17.8 µM). Furthermore, these compounds showed higher selectivity index (SI) in comparison with miltefosine. Since related acetylene fatty acid 1 displayed reduced antiparasitic potential (IC50 of 48.5 µM), the obtained results suggested that the γ-lactone plays an important role in the antileishmanial activity. However, 2-4 exhibited cytotoxicity to mammalian NCTC cells (CC50 ca. 80 µM), which could be a result of the presence of a conjugated carbonyl system in the lactone ring, since 5, the only acetogenin that presents the saturated ring, lacked mammalian cytotoxicity (CC50 > 200 µM).
Classrooms are microenvironments in which children and teenagers may be exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Iranduba is a rural city in the Amazon region close to many brick kilns and road with high traffic levels. In this study, indoor and outdoor PM2.5 levels were measured in a classroom in Iranduba, and the PM2.5 exposure effects on student’s health were calculated. High indoor PM2.5 concentrations and high indoor-to-outdoor ratio values indicated particle accumulation within the classroom. The high percentage of black carbon (10%) in the dry season revealed the influence of burning processes on PM2.5 composition. Se, S, and Pb had an enrichment factor > 5, indicating that there is an important source for these elements in the city. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model indicated soil resuspension, burning processes and vehicular emissions as the main PM2.5 sources. The excess risk shows that our classroom occupants are expected to be 30% more likely to develop lung-cancer than a group exposed to a background level of PM2.5. Therefore, it is important to have an effective ventilation system in order to reduce the accumulation of pollutants within the classroom and also to control/decrease the emission of pollutants in the city.
Abstract Contamination of primary and cell cultures by mycoplasmas is one of the main economic and biological pitfalls in basic research, diagnosis and manufacture of biotechnological products. It is a common issue which may be difficult to conduct surveillance on. Mycoplasma presence may affect several physiological parameters of the cell, besides being considered an important source of inaccurate and/or non-reproducible scientific results. Each cell type presents characteristical symptoms, mainly morphological, that indicate a contamination by mycoplasma. HEp-2 cells originate from carcinoma of the larynx and are, therefore, part of the respiratory tract, which is one of mycoplasma habitats. Despite the importance these cells in several biological research (evaluation of cell proliferation and migration, apoptosis, antiviral and antitumor compounds), the alterations induced by mycoplasma contamination in HEp-2 cells have not yet been described. Here, we describe the progressive morphological alterations in culture of HEp-2 cells infected with mycoplasma, as well as the-diagnosis of the infection and its treatment. Mycoplasma contamination described within this work led to cytoplasm elongation, cell-to-cell spacing, thin plasma membrane projections, cytoplasmic vacuoles, fusion with neighboring cells, and, finally, cell death. Contamination was detected by fluorescence imaging (DAPI) and PCR reactions. The cultures were treated with BM-Cyclin antibiotic to eliminate contamination. The data presented here will be of relevance to researchers whose investigations involve cell culture, especially respiratory and HEp-2 cells.
Resumo A contaminação de culturas primárias e celulares por micoplasmas é uma das principais armadilhas econômicas e biológicas da pesquisa básica, diagnóstico e fabricação de produtos biotecnológicos. Trata-se de uma contaminação rotineira, mas de difícil acompanhamento. A presença de micoplasma pode afetar vários parâmetros fisiológicos da célula, além de ser considerada uma importante fonte de resultados científicos imprecisos e/ou não reprodutíveis. Cada tipo de célula apresenta sintomas característicos, principalmente morfológicos, que indicam uma contaminação por micoplasma. As células HEp-2 são originárias do carcinoma da laringe e, portanto, fazem parte do trato respiratório, um dos habitats do micoplasma. Apesar da importância destas células em diversas pesquisas biológicas (avaliação da proliferação e migração celular, apoptose, compostos antivirais e antitumorais), as alterações decorrentes da contaminação por micoplasma nestas células ainda não foi descrita. Aqui, descrevemos as alterações morfológicas progressivas na cultura de células HEp-2 infectadas por micoplasma, bem como o diagnóstico da infecção e seu tratamento. A contaminação por micoplasma descrita neste trabalho resultou em alongamento citoplasmático, espaçamento entre células, projeções delgadas da membrana plasmática, vacúolos citoplasmáticos, fusão de células vizinhas e, finalmente, morte celular. A contaminação foi detectada por imagens de fluorescência (DAPI) e reações de PCR. As culturas foram tratadas com antibiótico BM-Cyclin para eliminar a contaminação. Os dados aqui apresentados serão de relevância para pesquisadores cujas investigações envolvem cultura celular, principalmente células respiratórias e HEp-2.
ABSTRACT The characterization of ventilation during the transport of broiler chickens is essential for identifying and characterizing the potential problems of a convective heat flow and its effects on the welfare and the health and production conditions of the chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ventilation patterns in two layout models of a live transport load: conventional (LC) and alternative (LA) with spacers placed between the chicken transport crates. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and wind tunnel tests were performed using small scale models. The results showed that the use of spacers between crates (LA model) modified the ventilation patterns and increased the wind circulation between crates. However, wind tunnel tests simulating a density of eight birds/crate were inconclusive because the ventilation was below the sensitivity of the measuring devices used (0.001 m/s). It can be concluded that the use of spacers between the transport crates can modify the ventilation patterns within the load and increase the air circulation between the crates. However, the internal ventilation within the crates has not changed, suggesting the need for studies on the aerodynamics of a transport crate for poultry use.