Resumo Contexto As infecções profundas de extremidades representam um desafio para o salvamento de membro dos pacientes. Objetivos Investigar se existe concordância entre as culturas de osso e tecido profundo em pacientes com lesões tróficas de extremidades. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo incluindo 54 pacientes com lesões tróficas profundas de extremidades internados, no Complexo Hospitalar Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Salvador (BA), Brasil. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes que realizaram culturas de lesões tróficas profundas, com duas modalidades de coleta de exame: osso e fragmentos de tendão profundo. Analisaram-se a concordância, o número total de microrganismos e o número de microrganismos de acordo com a coloração de Gram em ambas as amostras. Resultados Entre os 54 doentes incluídos na amostra, a média de idade foi de 63,6 anos, 80% apresentavam DAOP, 70% eram diabéticos, e 72% hipertensos. Estudando as culturas dos 54 pacientes, 28 amostras (52%) foram completamente concordantes, sendo cultivados os mesmos microrganismos nos fragmentos de tendão profundo e de osso. Houve discordância parcial em 13 amostras (24%), e discordância total em 13 (24%). Observou-se que cresceu em média 1,62 microrganismo nos fragmentos de tendão profundo, e 1,72 nas amostras de osso. Analisando separadamente os microrganismos gram-positivos, a média de espécies cultivadas foi de 0,48 em tendão e de 0,44 em tecido ósseo. Por outro lado, para os microrganismos gram-negativos, a média de microrganismos cultivados foi de 1,14 e 1,27 nas amostras de tendão e de osso, respectivamente. Conclusões Cerca de metade dos pacientes portadores de lesões tróficas profundas de extremidades apresentaram concordância total entre as culturas de osso e de tendão.
Abstract Background Deep infections of the extremities are a challenge that threaten limb salvage. Objectives To investigate whether the results of bone and deep tissue cultures from patients with trophic limb ulcers coincide. Methods A retrospective study was conducted with data from 54 patients with deep trophic limb ulcers admitted to the Complexo Hospitalar Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Salvador (BA), Brazil. The study analyzed all patients for whom cultures of material from foot wounds in patients with tissue loss had been performed using two specimen types: bone and fragments of deep tendon. The study analyzed concordance between the two sample types and total number of microorganisms and numbers of microorganisms by Gram staining in both samples. Results The mean age of the 54 patients in the sample was 63.6 years, 80% had PAOD, 70% were diabetic, and 72% were hypertensive. Analysis of the cultures showed that 28 (52%) pairs of samples from the 54 patients exhibited complete concordance, with the same microorganisms grown from fragments of deep tendon and bone. There was partial disagreement in 13 samples (24%) and total disagreement in 13 (24%). On average, 1.62 microorganisms were isolated from deep tendon fragments and 1.72 were isolated from bone samples. Analyzing Gram-positive microorganisms separately, the mean number of species grown was 0.48 for tendon cultures and 0.44 for bone cultures. In contrast, the mean number of Gram-negative microorganisms isolated was 1.14 for tendon samples and 1.27 for bone samples. Conclusions Around half of the patients with foot tissue loss had bone and tendon cultures that coincided exactly.
We report the first two cases of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans infections in Latin America. We also conducted a literature review and a microbiological investigation, including that of clinical and environmental isolates. A 30-year-old man with chronic renal failure had disseminated infection after dialysis and a 15-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis (CF) had pulmonary exacerbations with positive respiratory samples. A review of the relevant literature revealed that deep-seated infections were related to immunosuppression or invasive devices, while most of the CF patients showed a decline in lung function after positive cultures. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinct circulating genotypes. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis showed similar spectral profiles and correctly identified all strains/isolates. Biofilm production was documented in a bloodstream isolate and biofilm-producing cells showed high minimum inhibitory concentrations against antifungals.
Milk may represent an important source of infectious agents to hospitalized pediatric patients. To describe the bacterial microflora isolated from the hands, stools, pharynx of all workers at milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as in the formulas prepared by them, we carried out this cross-sectional study with all 91 workers from the 20 milk kitchens of all the public and private hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Hand and pharynx swabs and stool samples were collected from all workers, as well as samples of the milk and formulas delivered by the kitchens. All samples were cultured for the detection of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 20 (22.0%) and 8 (8.8%) cultures of the hands and pharynx of the workers, respectively. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from stool samples. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 17 (18.7%) milk samples. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in hand swabs was significantly higher in workers from public (37.8%) than from private (6.5%) hospitals (prevalence ratio [PR]=5.8; p<0.01). Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two (4.4%) workers from public hospitals and six (13.0%) workers from private hospitals (PR=0.38; p=0.27). Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 11 (24.4%) milk samples from public hospitals and 6 (13.0%) from private hospitals (PR=1.9; p=0.16). A high prevalence of contamination was found, mainly on the hands of workers on units for manipulation of milk. Preventive efforts should be intensified and focus primarily on effective hand washing and continuous work supervision.