Abstract This retrospective study aimed at determining the predicted risks of clinical and radiographic complications in primary teeth following traumatic dental injuries, according to injury type, severity and child’s age. Data were collected from records of children treated at a Dental Trauma Center in Brazil for nine years. Records of 576 children were included; clinical sequelae were assessed in 774 teeth, and radiographic sequelae, in 566 teeth. A total of 408 teeth (52.7%) had clinical sequelae and 185 teeth (32.7%), radiographic sequelae. The type of injury with the highest number of clinical sequelae was the crown-root fracture (86.4%). Clinical sequelae increased with injury severity (p < 0.001), whereas radiographic sequelae did not (0.236). The predicted risk of color change was 29.0% (95%CI 19–41) for teeth with enamel fracture, and 26.0% (95%CI 14–40) for teeth with enamel dentin fracture as well as enamel dentin pulp fracture. Risk of periapical radiolucency was higher for teeth with enameldentinpulp fracture (61.1% 95%CI 35–82) and those with subluxation (15.8% 95%CI 10–22). Risk of premature loss was 27.3% (95%CI 13–45) for teeth with extrusive luxation, and 10.2% (95%CI 5–17) for those with intrusive luxation. The assessment of predicted risks of sequelae showed that teeth with hard tissue trauma tended to present color change, periapical radiolucency and premature loss, whereas teeth with supporting tissue trauma showed color change, abnormal position, premature loss and periapical radiolucency as the most common sequelae. Knowledge about the predicted risks of complications may help clinicians establish appropriate treatment plans.
This study investigated the expression of extracellular matrix glycoproteins tenascin (TN) and fibronectin (FN) in pulp repair after capping with calcium hydroxide (CH), following different hemostasis protocols. Class I cavities with a pulp exposure were prepared in 42 human third molars scheduled for extraction. Different hemostatic agents (0.9% saline solution, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate) were used and pulps were capped with CH cement. After 7, 30 or 90 days, teeth were extracted, formalin-fixed, and prepared for immunohistochemical technique. Hemostatic agents did not influence the expression of TN and FN. Both glycoproteins were found in the entire the pulp tissue and around collagen fibers, but were absent in the mineralized tissues. In the predentin, TN showed positive immunostaining and FN had a variable expression. Within 7 days post-treatment, a slightly more pronounced immunostaining on the pulp exposure site was observed. Within 30 days, TN and FN demonstrated a positive expression around the dentin barrier and at 90 days, a thin and linear expression of TN and FN was delimitating the reparative dentin. In conclusion, hemostatic agents did not influence TN and FN expression. Immunostaining for TN and FN was seen in different regions and periods, demonstrating their role in pulp repair.
Este estudo investigou a expressão das glicoproteínas Tenascina (TN) e Fibronectina (FN) da matriz extracelular no reparo pulpar após capeamento com hidróxido de cálcio (HC), seguindo diferentes protocolos de hemostasia. Cavidades de classe I com exposição pulpar foram preparadas em 42 terceiros molares humanos indicados para extração. Diferentes agentes hemostáticos (solução salina a 0,9%, hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25% e clorexidina a 2%) foram usados e as polpas foram capeadas com cimento de HC. Após 7, 30 ou 90 dias, os dentes foram extraídos, fixados em formalina e preparados para análise imunoistoquímica. Os agentes hemostáticos não influenciaram a expressão de TN e FN. Ambas glicoproteínas foram encontradas em todo tecido pulpar, ao redor das fibras colágenas e estiveram ausentes nos tecidos mineralizados. Na pré-dentina, a TN mostrou forte imunoexpressão e a FN teve uma expressão variável. Após 7 dias, foi observada uma expressão levemente mais pronunciada no lugar da exposição pulpar. Aos 30 dias, a TN e a FN demonstraram uma expressão mais forte sob a barreira dentinária e aos 90 dias, uma expressão fina e linear da TN e FN apresentava-se delimitando a dentina reparativa. Em conclusão, os agentes hemostáticos não influenciaram e expressão da TN e da FN. A imunoexpressão da TN e FN foi observada em diferentes regiões e períodos, demonstrando o seu papel no reparo pulpar.