Abstract The need for materials with higher strength and corrosion resistance in corrosive environments, such as in the oil extraction in saline media, has led to the use of super duplex stainless steels in projects such as the Pre-sal. The manufacture of these materials involves the step of thermomechanical processing, whose performance depends on the workability of the material. Processing conditions in which the super duplex stainless steel UNS S32760 can be worked safely and in which the material can fail were investigated in this presentation. The physical simulation was performed by means of hot torsion testing. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 900°C to 1200°C and strain rates of 0.01s-1 to 10s-1. The evolution of strain rate sensitivity of flow stress (m) for deformation of 0.5 at all temperatures investigated here was determined. After attaining the values of m for each deformation condition, the values of the power dissipation efficiency (η) were calculated, an instability criterion (ξ) was applied, and processing maps were constructed. Using these maps, the effects of deformation conditions on the power dissipation efficiency and the material plastic instability were discussed. The domains of processing maps, the observed microstructures and the shape of plastic flow stress curves were associated.
An austenitic stainless steel ISO 5832-9 used as a biomaterial was torsion-deformed over the temperature range of 1000-1200 °C and strain rates of 0.05, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 s- 1. The flow stress curves obtained showed two regions where firstly there is a rising on stress characterized as work hardening mechanism acting and secondly a decreasing in work-softening after a peak stress. The flow curves were modeled by adjusting the experimental data with Zener-Hollomom parameter to construct the constitutive equations that describe the plastic behavior in both regions. The first region was described until the peak stress, taking into consideration the competition between work hardening and recovery while the second one was described applying the softening time of 50% and the Avrami equation. In some hot deformation conditions the simulated curves showed good agreement with the experimental ones while in others conditions the simulated showed differences to experimental curves that was discussed and associated with other mechanisms that acted during hot deformation.
This paper quantifies the effects of milling conditions on surface integrity of ultrafine-grained steels. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were related to microhardness and microstructure of the workpiece beneath machined surface. Low-carbon alloyed steel with 10.8 µm (as-received) and 1.7 µm (ultrafine) grain sizes were end milled using the down-milling and dry condition in a CNC machining center. The results show ultrafine-grained workpiece preserves its surface integrity against cutting parameters more than the as-received material. Cutting speed increases the microhardness while depth of cut deepens the hardened layer of the as-received material. Also, deformations of microstructure following feed rate direction were observed in workpiece subsurface.
Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization measurements were conducted in 0.9% NaCl solution to investigate the localized corrosion susceptibility of two austenitic stainless steel biomaterials: a low nitrogen, according to ASTM F 138 - the metallic material most widely utilized today in orthopedic applications; and a nitrogen- and niobium-bearing stainless steel, according to ISO 5832-9, which has shown a promising potential as a substitute of the F 138 steel for more severe loading applications and longer times inside the human body. The polarization tests revealed that the ISO 5832-9 steel is more corrosion resistant than the F 138. The critical pitting potential of the ISO 5832-9 steel could not be observed in the cyclic polarization curve up to the value of potential corresponding to its transpassivity. The potentiostatic scratch test confirmed the superiority of the ISO 5832-9 steel, which heal the mechanically damaged passive film at applied potential as high as 800 mV (SCE). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination confirmed the presence of corrosion pits - lacelike pits - in a stable growth stage on the surface of F 138 steel and the absence of such pits in the specimens of the ISO 5832-9 steel. The higher corrosion resistance of the latter is attributed to the increased stability of the passive film and the high tendency to repassivate, which, in turn, is favored by the presence of nitrogen in interstitial solid solution in the austenite of this type of steel.
O presente trabalho avaliou a resistência à corrosão localizada de dois aços inoxidáveis austeníticos utilizados na fabricação de implantes ortopédicos: o aço ASTM F138, material metálico atualmente mais utilizado em aplicações ortopédicas e o aço ISO 5832-9, aço com adição de nióbio e nitrogênio e que vem sendo apontado como uma alternativa para a substituição do aço F138, para aplicações mais severas de carregamento e tempo de permanência no interior do corpo humano. Ensaios de polarização mostraram que o aço ISO 5832-9 apresenta resistência à corrosão localizada muito superior à do aço F138. O potencial crítico de pite do aço ISO 5832-9 não foi observado na curva de polarização cíclica até o potencial de transpassivação do material. O ensaio potenciostático de corrosão por risco confirmou a superioridade do aço ISO 5832-9. Observou-se a reconstituição do filme passivo danificado mecanicamente, mesmo em potenciais tão elevados como 800 mV SCE. Análises por microscopia eletrônica de varredura confirmaram a presença de pites de corrosão de crescimento estável, na superfície da amostra de aço F 138, e a ausência desses pites, na amostra do aço ISO 5832-9. A maior resistência à corrosão localizada do aço ISO 5832-9 é, principalmente, atribuída ao aumento da estabilidade do filme passivo, sendo favorecida pela presença do nitrogênio em solução sólida intersticial, na austenita desse aço.
Two kinds of stainless steels with different ferrite and austenite volume fractions were deformed by torsion at a temperature range of 900 to 1250°C. Steel A (25.5Cr - 4.9Ni - 1.6Mo) has Cr eq/Ni eq = 4.8 and grade B (22.2Cr - 5.6Ni - 3Mo) has Cr eq/Ni eq = 3.5. The results show that the shape of the flow stress curves depends on the material and deformation conditions. Four different shapes of flow curves were observed. At high temperatures, steel A has a typical behavior of ferritic stainless steels. As the straining temperature was decreased, flow curves with peek stresses at low deformation were observed. When the austenite particles are coarsened inside the matrix (steel B), the flow stress displays a peak stress, dividing extensive hardening and softening regions. When the volume fraction of both phase are comparable and the microstructure is characterized by percolation of the both phases present in the samples, the flow stress curve acquires a very particular shape in hot torsion tests.
Dois tipos de aços inoxidáveis com diferentes proporções de austenita e ferrita foram deformados em torção em temperaturas variando de 900 a 1250°C. O aço A (25,5Cr - 4,9Ni - 1,6Mo) tem Cr eq/Ni eq = 4,8 e o aço B (22,2Cr - 5,6Ni - 3Mo) tem Cr eq/Ni eq = 3,5. Os resultados mostraram que a forma da curva de escoamento plástico depende do material e das condições de deformação, sendo observado quatro formas distintas para essas curvas. Em altas temperaturas, o aço A tem um comportamento plástico típico dos aços inoxidáveis ferríticos. Ao diminuir a temperatura de deformação, a curva apresenta um pico de tensões após pequenas deformações. Quando as partículas de austenita estão dispersas grosseiramente dentro da matriz (aço B), a curva de escoamento plástico mostra um pico de tensão separando regiões extensas de encruamento (aumento da tensão com a deformação) e amaciamento (a tensão diminui com a deformação). Em proporções iguais das fases, quando a microestrutura é caracterizada pela presença das duas fases na forma de lamelas que se estendem por toda a extensão da amostra (ambas as fases percolam a superfície da amostra), a curva toma uma forma bem particular nos ensaios de torção a quente.
ASTM F 138 austenitic stainless steel is extensively used as an orthopedic implant material. However, some aspects, such as low strength in the annealed condition and susceptibility to localized corrosion, limit wider use of this kind of steel. Recently, a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, specified in the standard ISO 5832-9, has been indicated as an alternative to ASTM F 138 steel for more severe loading and permanent application inside the human body. In this work, microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and fatigue behavior of both steels were determined and compared. ISO 5832-9 steel displayed better mechanical and corrosion behaviors than did ASTM F 138 steel. The combination of these features lead ISO steel to enhanced fatigue performance in both neutral and aggressive environments. Analyzed were the role of nitrogen in solid solution, combined with niobium in the Z-phase, and the factors that led to superior ISO 5832-9 properties.
Embora o aço inoxidável austenítico tipo ASTM F 138 seja o material metálico mais utilizado na fabricação de implantes ortopédicos, alguns aspectos como baixa resistência mecânica, quando na condição recozido, e suscetibilidade à corrosão localizada limitam o emprego mais amplo desse material. Recentemente, o aço inoxidável austenítico com alto nitrogênio de classificação ISO 5832-9 vem sendo indicado como substituto ao F 138, principalmente para aplicações mais críticas, envolvendo carregamentos mais severos e longos períodos de permanência no interior do corpo humano. Nesse trabalho, fez-se a caracterização das microestruturas dos dois aços, avaliaram-se, comparativamente, as propriedades mecânicas básicas, as propriedades de corrosão e de fadiga dos dois aços. O aço ISO 5832-9 apresentou comportamentos mecânico e eletroquímico bastante superior ao aço ASTM F138. A combinação dessas características rendeu a esse material melhor desempenho em fadiga em meio neutro e em meio agressivo. Avalia-se o papel do nitrogênio, tanto em solução sólida, quanto combinado com o nióbio formando a fase Z, e discutem-se os fatores que levam à superioridade nas propriedades do aço ISO 5832-9.
An austenitic stainless steel was deformed in torsion over a temperature range of 900-1200 °C using strain rates of 1, 5 and 10 s-1. The stress vs. strain curves determined were corrected for deformation heating and the flow stress was found to rise in the initial work-hardening regime, reaching a maximum before dropping to the steady state due to softening brought about by dynamic recrystallization. In order to determine the onset of dynamic recrystallization, diagrams of work-hardening rate vs. applied stress were drawn up for the hardening region of the flow stress curves. The flow stress curves were modeled by adjusting an evolution equation having one internal variable that describes the plastic behavior in the work-hardening regime to the experimental data. The flow stress after the onset of dynamic recrystallization was determined by incorporating the fractional softening into the evolution equation. Describing the effects of temperature and strain rate on the evolution equation through Zener-Hollomon parameters, a database was constructed for use in computer models to predict the roll force of rolling or forging loads under hot working conditions.
Dilatometric techniques were used to determine the start and finish transformation heating temperatures for a carbon steel (0.30% C - 1.5% Mn). The mechanical behavior of the steel was measured by torsion testing in the temperature range of 700 to 820 °C with holding times ranging from 1 to 30 min. The flow stress curves presented different shapes and stress levels. These differences were attributed to the ferrite and pearlite, ferrite and austenite, and austenite strained structures. When ferrite and pearlite were deformed together, the flow stress presented a hump with little straining; when the austenitic structure was deformed the shape of the flow stress curve was typical of materials having low stacking fault energy. The microstructural evolution observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the evolution of the phase transformation was dependent on the testing temperatures, holding times and amount of straining. Comparisons were made on the kinetics of phase transformation with and without the application of plastic deformation, and evidence of strain-induced dynamic transformation was investigated.