Abstract The genus Mytilus comprises a large number of bivalve mollusk species distributed throughout the world and many of these species are considered invasive. In South America, many introductions of species of this genus have already taken place, including reports of hybridization between them. Now, the occurrence of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast. Several specimens of this mytilid were found in a shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis and Palhoça, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Morphological analysis of the shells and molecular analysis through sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) confirmed the taxonomic identification. The species is known for its great invasive potential and can become a major environmental problem for seafood business and coastal communities, as it can compete and even hybridize with local species.
Abstract Exotic species are those that occur in an area beyond their natural limit and they are considered invasive when they cause harm to the economy, environment, or human health. In coastal environments, ballast water and inlays on the hull and other parts of vessels are the main ways of introducing invasive aquatic alien species. Nassarius foveolatus (Dunker, 1847) is native from the Central and East Indian Ocean to the East China Sea. The first specimens (empty shells) of N. foveolatus were collected manually on November 11, 2017 on the Rocio footbridge, located in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, on the coast of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Posteriorly, live specimens were collected in other localities of this bay. It is already possible to infer that the specimens of N. foveolatus occur together with the native specimens of N. vibex (Say, 1822), having the same niche. As previously only N. vibex existed in that place, at least a displacement of this native species has been occurred. However, certainly future ecological studies may confirm this displacement and additional consequences to the local ecosystem, as nassariids can be predators and scavengers. Control procedures should be also greatly implemented.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate a Bayesian model-based clustering method to identify the strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) individuals from fish farms in Southern Brazil. Assignment methods using nine microsatellite loci were applied to differentiate individuals of five reference strains (GIFT, GST, Nilótica, Chitralada, and Saint Peter) and to identify individuals of unknown strains from fish farms near the Itaipu reservoir and in the Uruguay River basin. The procedure assigned the correct strain in more than 90% of the cases and was also able to detect hybrids between strains. The obtained results showed that several fish farms in Southern Brazil cultivate more than one tilapia strain and even interstrain hybrids. The proposed methodology is a reliable tool for the identification of the strain origin of Nile tilapia individuals.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar uma metodologia de agrupamento baseada em modelo Bayesiano para identificação de linhagens de indivíduos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) de pisciculturas no Sul do Brasil. Métodos de alocação com nove loci de marcadores microssatélites foram aplicados para diferenciar indivíduos de cinco linhagens-referência (GIFT, GST, Nilótica, Chitralada e Saint Peter) e para identificar indivíduos de linhagens desconhecidas coletados em pisciculturas ao redor do reservatório de Itaipu e na bacia do rio Uruguai. O procedimento atribuiu a linhagem correta em mais de 90% dos casos e pôde, inclusive, detectar híbridos entre linhagens. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que várias pisciculturas no Sul do Brasil cultivam mais de uma linhagem de tilápia-do-nilo e até mesmo híbridos entre as linhagens. A metodologia proposta é uma ferramenta confiável para a identificação das linhagens de origem de indivíduos de tilápia-do-nilo.