Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the most frequent surgical techniques of high-risk colorectal anastomoses in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were enrolled in three different models comprising inflammatory (TNBS enema), vascular (portal vein occlusion) or obstructive (a non-ischemic constricting ring) mechanisms associated with colonic anastomosis that had accomplished after these former lesions. Histological analyses (Hematoxylin and eosin and Picrosirius red) were performed. Results: All anastomoses techniques were associated with risk factors and had complications, mainly anastomotic leakage. In Study 1, the use of a pharmacological agent, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) mimicked an inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease with 50% of anastomosis leakage, the higher percentage among all models tested. In Study 2, after portal ischemia followed by reperfusion it was observed a dense neutrophil infiltrate in the midst of necrotic tissue and fibrin at the anastomotic site and 5 days after the anastomosis, no collagen was produced. In Study 3, 5 days after the mechanical obstruction some denuded areas of epithelium with marked oedema of mucosa and submucosa were seen, at the anastomotic site and anastomosis group showed some reduction of collagen density when compared with Control/Sham group. Conclusion: All the experimental surgical techniques tested in rats were associated with high-risk colorectal anastomoses and were useful to study colonic anastomotic healing and intestinal leakage.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the actual incidence of both microlithiasis and acute cholecystitis during treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone in a new rabbit model. Methods: New Zealand rabbits were treated with intravenous ceftriaxone or saline for 21 days. Ultrasound monitoring of the gallbladder was performed every seven days until the 21st day when histopathology, immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), pro-caspase-3 and CD68, liver enzyme biochemistry, and chromatography analysis of the bile and sediments were also performed. Results: All animals treated with ceftriaxone developed acute cholecystitis, confirmed by histopathology (P<0.05) and biliary microlithiasis, except one that exhibited sediment precipitation. In the group treated with ceftriaxone there was an increase in pro-caspase-3, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase concentration, PCNA expression and in the number of cells positive for anti-CD68 (P<0.05). In the ceftriaxone group, the cholesterol and lecithin concentrations increased in the bile and a high concentration of ceftriaxone was found in the microlithiasis. Conclusion: Ceftriaxone administered intravenously at therapeutic doses causes a high predisposition for lithogenic bile formation and the development of acute lithiasic cholecystitis.