Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the periradicular responses in endodontic infections among members of two populations: an urban Brazilian population and a non-mixed indigenous population. Samples were collected immediately and 7 days after the cleaning and shaping procedures (after reducing the intracanal microbial load) in an attempt to characterize the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-9, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, IL-10, and the chemokines CXCR4, CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and CCR6. The endogenous cytokine and chemokine expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR. Only the urban population showed a significant increase in TNF-α, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCR4, and CCR6 expression following the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. The IFN-γ levels were increased at the 2nd collection (p < 0.05) in the indigenous population. In turn, a significant increase in IL-10 and IL-17 expression (p < 0.05) was observed after the cleaning and shaping procedures (2nd collection) in both populations. No significant differences in the IL-1β, IL-9, and CCL4 expression levels were observed between the 1st and 2nd collections in both populations. The results demonstrate a cytokine and chemokine expression profile that is specific to each analyzed population. However, immune modulation mediated by IL-10 began on the 7th day after the beginning of the endodontic treatment in both populations.
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of cytokines in response to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plus selenium in germ-free mice with experimental furcal perforation. The first left maxillary molar was opened, and the furcal area was perforated and treated with post-MTA-Se (experimental group). The same surgical intervention was performed for the maxillary right first molar, which was treated with MTA (control group). Fifteen mice were sacrificed 7, 14, and 21 days after furcal perforation, and periapical tissue samples were collected. The mRNA expression levels of the cytokines TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, HPRT, IL-10, IL-4, RANK, RANKL, IL-1, and IL-17 were assessed by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the experimental group, at 21-days post-MTA-Se sealing, the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were upregulated compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05). Futher assessment revealed basal mRNA expression levels of IL-1α, IFN-γ, RANK, RANKL, IL-17A, IL-4, and TGF-β, over long experimental times, in both the experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, MTA+Se sealing favoured increased expression of IL-10 and TNF-α at later time points (day 21).
Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the longitudinal effects of induced experimental infections in gnotoxenic animals on the expression of inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in periradicular tissues. The null hypothesis tested was that Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum had no effect on CCR5, CCL5, CXCL10, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCR2 and CCR1 expression. Two groups of five animals (n = 5) aged between 8 and 12 weeks were used in this study. The animals were anaesthetized, and coronary access was performed in the first molar on the right and left sides. Microorganisms were inoculated into the left molar, and the right molar was sealed without contamination to function as a control. Animals were sacrificed 7 and 14 days after infection, and periapical tissues were collected. The cytokine mRNA expression levels were assessed using real-time PCR. The chemokine mRNA expression levels demonstrated that the experimental infection was capable of inducing increased chemokine expression on day 7 compared to that on day 14, except for CCR5 and CCL5, which showed no changes. The gnotoxenic animal model proved to be effective and allowed evaluation of the immune response against a known infection. Additionally, this study demonstrates that gene expression of chemokines and their receptors against the experimental infection preferentially prevailed during the initial phase of induction of the periradicular alteration (i.e., on day 7 post-infection).
Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological profile of oral health of Sateré-Mawé indigenous people living in Barreirinha, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, and the Tikuna indigenous people living in the urban area of Manaus (AM), in addition to characterizing the need for endodontic treatment between the two ethnic groups. A total of 138 individuals participated in the study, of whom 98 were Tikuna and 40 were Sateré-Mawé; they were distributed in age groups ranging from seven to 75 years. A very high prevalence of caries was observed in both ethnic groups. For the Sateré-Mawé in the 7–12 age group, the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index presented a mean value of 3.17. Comparing the DMFT index and the need for endodontic treatment in each of the ethnicities, these variables were found to be correlated, because as the DMFT index increases, the chances of needing endodontic treatment increase. The Sateré-Mawé presented a higher prevalence of need for endodontic treatment compared to the Tikuna. The association of comorbidities and the need for endodontic treatment were demonstrated only in the Tikuna, and there was only a correlation of this necessity with the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in one case. The need to expand access to oral health in these communities is emphasized, taking into account geographical access and technological, environmental, linguistic, and cultural barriers.
Abstract Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most prevalent genetic disease worldwide. Recurrent vaso-occlusive infarcts predispose SCA patients to infections, which are the primary causes of morbidly and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SCA and endodontic diseases. Personal information, medical data (hematological indices, virologic testing, blood transfusions, medications received, splenectomy) and information on the need for endodontic treatment were obtained from SCA patients who were registered and followed up by the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.These data were compared with the need for root canal treatment in SCA patients. One hundred eight patients comprised the studied population, and the rate of the need for endodontic therapy was 10.2%. Among the medical data, a significant difference was observed for eosinophil (p = 0.045) counts and atypical lymphocyte counts (p = 0.036) when the groups (with and without the need for endodontic treatment) were compared. Statistical relevance was observed when comparing the patients with and without the need for root canal therapy concerned eosinophil counts and atypical lymphocyte counts. The differences in statistical medical data, observed between the groups suggest that both parameters are naturally connected to the stimulation of the immune system that can occur in the presence of root canal infections and that can be harmful to SCA individuals.
<p>The aim of this study was to evaluate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-induced cytokine expression in mice after experimental furcal perforation. BALB/c mice (n=5) were subjected to induced furcal drilling of the maxillary first molar followed by MTA sealing in the left side (experimental group) and paraffin sealing in the right side (control group). Animals were euthanized at 7, 14 and 21 days after sealing the perforations. The expression levels of the IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-4, TGF-β and RANKL genes were investigated by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the teeth and surrounding tissues. In the experimental groups, after the 7th day, there was a down-regulation of the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-4 compared to the 14th day (p<0.05). In these groups, the mRNA levels of RANKL, IFN-γ and TNF-α were statistically higher after 14 days compared to 21 days post-MTA sealing (p<0.05). The level of IL-10 mRNA was increased at the 21st day (p<0.05). The mRNA expression of TGF-β did not exhibit any statistically relevant results. There was a statistical down-regulation of IL-4 gene expressions when control and experimental groups were compared at days 7 and 21. In conclusion, MTA sealing favored the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the intermediate phase of the immuno-inflammatory response (14th day). The reduction of these cytokines in later phase of the response was probably due to immunoregulation by IL-10.</p>
<p>O objetivo desse artigo foi avaliar a expressão das citocinas induzidas por MTA após a perfuração experimental de furca, em camundongos. Camundongos Balb/c (n=5) foram submetidos à perfuração induzida da furca do primeiro molar superior, seguido pelo selamento da mesma com MTA no lado esquerdo (grupo experimental) e com parafina no lado direito (grupo controle). Os animais foram sacrificados 7, 14 e 21 dias após o tratamento da perfuração. A expressão gênica dos níveis de IFN-γ, TNF- α, IL-10, IL-4, TGF- β e RANKL foram investigadas por PCR em tempo real nos dentes e tecidos adjacentes. No grupo experimental, após 7 dias, houve uma diminuição da expressão dos níveis de TNF- α e IL-4 comparados ao 14° dia (p<0,05). Nesses mesmos grupos, os níveis de mRNA de RANKL, IFN- γ e TNF- α foram estatisticamente maiores após 14 dias comparados a 21 dias após o tratamento com MTA (p<0,05). Os níveis de IL-10 estavam aumentados no 21<sup>o</sup> dia (p<0,05). A expressão de mRNA do TGF- β não apresentou alteração estatisticamente relevante. Houve uma redução estatística da expressão gênica da IL-4 quando os grupos controle e experimental foram comparados nos dias 7 e 21. Em conclusão, o selamento com MTA favoreceu a expressão de citocinas pró-inflamatórias na fase intermediária da resposta imuno-inflamatória (14<sup>o</sup> dia). A redução dessas citocinas, na fase tardia da resposta, ocorreu provavelmente devido à imunoregulação da expressão de IL-10.</p>