Abstract We address and discuss some of the many flaws exhibited by Costa et al. (2019) which tried to explain the twig-like camouflage of Cladomorphus phyllinus. Given the lack of both empirical and theoretical underpinnings in Costa et al. (2019), we call into question the validity of their conclusions, in particular, that horizontal gene transfer is a causal mechanism for the camouflage in C. phyllinus.
Immatures are important sources of information about characters, thus potentially improving classification and phylogenies. Euschistus (Mitripus) grandis Rolston, 1978 occurs in southern and southeastern Brazil. There are no references in the literature about this species other than the original description and distribution records. Our aim is to describe the egg and five nymphal instars of E. (M.) grandis, addressing the ontogeny of the external scent efferent system. Specimens of E. (M.) grandis were collected on Solanum pseudocapsicum Linnaeus (Solanaceae) in São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and reared in the laboratory. The egg of E. (M.) grandis is white and barrel-shaped, chorion translucent bearing spines connected by thin sheets forming polygons. Aero-mycropilar processes translucent and slightly clubbed. The nymphs bear anterior dorsal abdominal scent glands (DAG) with slit-like ostiole continued by a short groove; from the second instar onward median and posterior DAGs with rounded ostiole bearing closing cuticular valve. Spout peritreme flat and curved anteriorly, evaporatorium network-shaped surrounding ostiole plus peritrema; alveoli surface with trabeculae. Nymphs of E. (M.) grandis can be distinguished from other species of Euschistus by the color pattern and morphological features. The most striking morphological characteristic of 4th and 5th instar nymphs of E. (M.) grandis is the broad, deflected projection of humeral angles.