Polypyrrole films doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PPy/DBS) and with oxy-anions tungstate (PPy/DBS/TUN) and vanadate (PPy/DBS/VAN) were potentiostatically electropolymerized on aluminum alloy 1100 (AA1100). The corrosion protection of these films was evaluated by the variation of the corrosion potential (ECORR) with the immersion time and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 0.05 mol L-1 NaCl and 0.05 mol L-1 HCl solutions. The EIS measurements suggest that the tungstate and the vanadate play the role of a dopant and an inhibitor. The results presented here show that PPy/DBS/TUN and PPy/DBS/VANprovide a protective effect against the corrosion of the AA1100. It was shown that the oxyanions’ inhibitory action is different depending on the electrolyte pH. In an HCl solution PPy/DBS/TUN films improve protection against aluminum alloy’s corrosion. On the other hand, in a NaCl solution, PPy/DBS/VAN films and PPy/DBS/TUN films act as inhibitor, the former being more effective.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3 substrates treated with self-assembled films obtained by combining tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with ODPA (octadecylphosphonic acid)in a 0.05 mol L-1 NaCl solution. The volumetric ratios of TEOS/ethanol/water used were 4:90:6 and 4:80:16, and the corresponding films formed were denoted as 90TEOS and 80TEOS, respectively. The addition of phosphonic acid to TEOS films was tested as a way to obtain a cooperative effect in order to improve the protective characteristics of the coating. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization data showed that the 90 TEOS films in the presence of ODPA had the highest impedance modulus after 168h of immersion in chloride solution. The results obtained indicate that undoped sol-gel coatings do not provide adequate protection against corrosion, evidenced by the existence of synergism between phosphonic acid and TEOS, improving the hydrophobicity of the films.
RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o comportamento corrosivo da liga de alumínio AA2024-T3 tratada com filmes obtidos pela combinação de tetraetilortossilicato (TEOS) com ODPA (ácido octadecilfosfônico) em solução de NaCl 0,05 mol L-1. As razões volumétricas de TEOS/etanol/água utilizadas foram 4:90:6 e 4:80:16, e os filmes formados foram denotados como 90TEOS e 80TEOS respectivamente. A adição de ácido fosfônico nos filmes TEOS foi testada como uma maneira de se obter um efeito cooperativo, a fim de melhorar as características de proteção do revestimento. Análises de espectroscopia de impedância electroquímica (EIE) e polarização potenciodinâmica mostraram que os filmes 90TEOS na presença de ODPA apresentaram um maior módulo de impedância após 168 horas de imersão em solução de cloreto. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os filmes obtidos apenas com TEOS não fornecem uma proteção adequada contra a corrosão, evidenciando a existência de sinergismo entre o ácido fosfônico e TEOS. Essa melhora foi relacionada à maior hidrofobicidade dos revestimentos.
Polyethylene/carbon nanotubes, PE/NTC, nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization for comparison with polyethylene/graphene nanosheets, PE/NG, nanocomposites obtained in the same conditions. The nanocomposites of polyethylene/NTC were obtained with good catalytic activities and were characterized by DSC and TEM. The nanocomposites with NG showed better thermal stability than with NTC, however, no significant differences in dynamic mechanical properties were found. In the electrical conductivity study, PE/NTC nanocomposites reached conductivities of semiconductor materials at lower content of filler than PE/NG nanocomposites.
Nanocompósitos de polietileno/nanotubos de carbono foram sintetizados através da polimerização in situ para serem comparados com nanocompósitos de polietileno/nanolâminas de grafeno, obtidos nas mesmas condições. Os nanocompósitos de polietileno/NTC foram obtidos com boas atividades catalíticas e foram caracterizados por DSC e MET. Os nanocompósitos com NG apresentaram melhor estabilidade térmica que os de NTC, porem não houve diferenças significativas nas propriedades dinâmico-mecânicas. No estudo da condutividade elétrica os nanocompósitos PE/NTC atingiram condutividades de materiais semicondutores com menor teor de nanocarga que os de PE/NG.
The effect of fluoride ions concentration on the electrochemical behavior of Ti grade 2 and Ti6Al4V in citrate buffers was studied. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements and voltammetric studies of the samples in the fluoride containing citrate buffers revealed a dissolution process when the pH falls below 5.0 and the NaF content is higher than 0.01 M. However, in citrate pH 7.6 the materials showed a passive behavior even in 0.1 M NaF. Some micrographs of Ti grade 2 obtained after longer immersion times in citrate pH 5.0 with 0.01 M NaF showed a surface attack. EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Sprectroscopy) data obtained at the OCP revealed that the film resistance decreases when the immersion time is increased in pH 5.0 containing 0.1 M NaF. In the citrate pH 7.6 the EIS data indicated a two-layer model of an oxide film consisting of a more compact inner layer and a porous outer layer. On the other hand, the EIS results in citrate pH 4.0 change significantly when the fluoride ions concentration increases from 0.01 to 0.05 M. The electrochemical data revealed that the corrosion behavior of Ti grade 2 and Ti6Al4V in the citrate buffers depends on the pH, the fluoride content and the exposure time.
This paper reports on an investigation of the electrochemical behavior of Ti grade 2 and Ti6Al4V alloy in aqueous citric acid solutions with pH 2.0 containing halide ions. Voltammetric studies of Ti and the alloy in citric acid, with and without chloride ions, indicate that the Ti and Ti alloy presented a passive behavior in the test solutions used. Pitting was observed at 3.0 and 2.5 V/SCE for Ti and Ti6Al4V, respectively, when bromide ions were added to the solution. In solutions containing fluoride ions, dissolution of the film occurred at potentials close to - 1.0 V/SCE in both electrodes. The iodide ions oxidized on the passive oxide film at potentials close to 1.0 V/SCE. EIS results of the materials in citric acid solutions containing chloride ions revealed that the film's resistance increased as the applied potential rose from 0 to 1.0 V. In bromide-containing solutions, breakdown of the film was confirmed at potentials above 2.0 V/SCE in both electrodes. These results suggest film reformation for Ti and the alloy in solutions containing fluoride at potentials within the passive region.
This paper discusses the electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and a copper/nickel alloy in aerated aqueous 0.10 and 1.0 mol L-1 sodium acetate. The data obtained from different electrochemical techniques were analyzed to determine the influence of Ni and Cu on the electrochemical processes of the alloy electrode. The shapes of the potentiodynamic I(E) curves of the alloy were found to be quite similar to those of the Ni voltamograms. Although the anodic current densities of Ni and the alloy increased with greater concentrations of acetate, the opposite effect occurred in Cu. The impedance measurements taken at the open circuit potential revealed that the polarization resistance (R P) of the electrodes decreased in the following order: Ni > Alloy > Cu. With increasing concentrations of acetate, the R P of the alloy and the Cu increased while that of the Ni electrode decreased.