ABSTRACT Enteric diseases affect poultry and cause important economic losses in many countries worldwide. Avian parvovirus has been linked to enteric conditions, such as malabsorption and runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), characterized by diarrhoea, and reduced weight gain and growth retardation. In 2013 and 2016, 79 samples were collected from different organs of chickens in Ecuador that exhibited signs of diarrhea and stunting syndrome, and analysed for the presence of chicken parvovirus (ChPV). The detection method of ChPV applied was Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), using primers designed from the conserved region of the viral genome that encodes the non-structural protein NS1. Out of the 79 samples, 50.6% (40/79) were positive for ChPV, and their nucleotide and amino acid sequences were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationship with the sequences reported in the United States, Canada, China, South Korea, Croatia, Poland, Hungary, and Brazil. Strong similarity of nucleotide and amino acid sequences among all analyzed sequences and between the analysed and reference sequences was demonstrated, and the phylogenetic analysis clustered all the sequences within the same group, demonstrating a strong relation between the studied strains and the reference chicken parvovirus strains.
ABSTRACT This study determined the presence of Tremovirus A as the possible agent related to Avian Encephalomyelitis in broiler chicks from the states of São Paulo (SP) Paraná (PR), Goiás (GO), Santa Catarina (SC) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS), between the years 2006 and 2015. Samples of the nervous, digestive, respiratory, immune, and renal systems, plus muscular organs from broiler chicks with neurological problems such as ataxia and muscle tremors, and four (4) commercial vaccines as positive control, were tested by reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing. A highly conserved region (P1) of the viral genome, was used to amplify a segment which encodes a structural protein VP4. Out of 112 samples, 46 were positive (42%) for Tremovirus A, that was identified in the nervous, digestive, respiratory, renal and immune systems. The phylogenetic analysis clustered together the nucleotide sequences of the 46 samples, the four commercial vaccine strains and the reference sequence of Calnek strain obtained from the GenBank. According to these results, we conclude that the presence of Tremovirus A in these Brazilian chicken flocks distributed in all states was due to flaws in the biosecurity measurements.
Infectious laryngotracheitis is a very important respiratory disease because it causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The target of ILTV infections is the respiratory system, and the main organ in which the virus remains latent is the trigeminal ganglia. However, the virus has demonstrated tropism for other organs as well. The present study was conducted to determine the presence of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) in the state of São Paulo. Samples submitted to LABOR- USP during the last four years (2009-2013) analyzed by a nested/PCR technique. Out of the 682 samples from layers tested for LTIV, 12.46 % were positive, and derived from in both traditional (trachea and trigeminal ganglion) and untraditional (cecal tonsils, digestive tract and kidneys) organs utilized for ILTV diagnosis. The present work showed that ILTV is circulating in commercial layer flocks in São Paulo State, and that the LTIV is present in other organs in addition to the respiratory tract and trigeminal ganglion; however, it was not determined if the circulating virus is a vaccinal or field strain.
This article reports a survey on turkey astrovirus (TAstV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infections with RT-PCR in 17 turkey flocks affected by acute enteritis and two apparently normal turkey flocks located in the Southeastern region of Brazil by PCR (TAstV and TCoV). Seven out of the 17 affected flocks were positive for TAstV and 14 for TCoV, with seven co-infections. In one of the two apparently normal flocks, a TAstV-TCoV co-infection was found. Although a definitive association of these agents and the signs can not be made, the implications of these findings are discussed.
Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis, caused by Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV), has been reported for decades in Brazilian laying and broiler flocks. More recently, outbreaks have occurred in São Paulo State. This study reports the application of PCR and DNA sequencing targeted to the p32 gene of ILTV using laying chicken samples from Bastos, São Paulo, Brazil. Three out of four field samples were positive by PCR. DNA sequencing of two samples evidenced homology of the amplified fragments with the p32 gene of ILTV. The results definitely confirmed the presence of ILTV in the birds during the outbreak. Further studies are needed to establish the sources of infection and to determine whether the detected virus was originated from vaccine or field virus strains.