ABSTRACT Objective: To elucidate the current scenario of endourology in Brazil for the treatment of urinary lithiasis, with an emphasis on regional differences and the reasons why certain techniques are still underutilized. Materials and Methods: An electronic questionnaire was sent by email to the 4,745 members of the Brazilian Urological Society (BSU) in 2016 to collect information on the 3 main endourological procedures used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis: Semi-rigid ureteroscopy (URS), Flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Results: A total of 1,267 urologists answered the questionnaire. It was observed that the vast majority perform URS (95.6%), while 80.2% perform F-URS and only 72.1% perform PCNL. Regarding the surgical volume, most perform up to 10 procedures per month (73.4% to 88.2%) and the main impediment was the lack of patients with the pathology (42.1% to 67.7%). The lack of equipment or hospital infrastructure was one of the main limiting factors for rigid (23%) and flexible (38.1%) URS, mainly in the North and Northeast regions of the country. Regarding PCNL, most of them reported lack of practical experience in the method (29.9%). Finally, most urologists expressed interest in taking courses in endourology. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy, rigid or flexible, is already well established in the country, requiring the direction of more resources for its practice, especially in less developed regions. Regarding PCNL a significant part of Brazilian urologists still lack practical experience in this procedure, emphasizing the need for greater investment in teaching this technique.
Resumo Objetivo: Analisar os resultados da ureterorrenolitotripsia flexível (ULT-F) no tratamento de cálculos em rins com anomalia de posição e de fusão (rins em ferradura e rins com vício de rotação). Método: Realizamos a coleta prospectiva dos dados de 13 pacientes com anomalias de fusão e de posição submetidos a ULT-F entre abril de 2011 e abril de 2017. Analisaram-se dados clínicos (idade, gênero, IMC, anormalidades anatômicas, dimensão e localização dos cálculos) e perioperatórios (método de tratamento do cálculo, índice de stone free, tempo de cateter DJ e complicações perioperatórias). Resultados: Nos 13 pacientes, os cálculos mediam em média 12,23 mm +/- 5,43 mm (variando de 6 a 22 mm), em sua maioria distribuídos em apenas um grupo calicinal (58.33% em grupo calicial inferior, 16.67% em grupo calicial médio, 16,67% em pelve e 8,33% em múltiplos cálices). Todos os pacientes foram tratados com utilização de laser Ho-Yag, com fragmentação e retirada de cálculos em sete casos (58,33%), pulverização em três casos (25%) e técnica mista em dois casos (16,67%). Não houve complicações intraoperatórias ou pós-operatórias graves. Após 90 dias, nove pacientes tornaram-se stone free (75%). Conclusão: A ULT-F apresenta-se como método seguro e eficaz no tratamento de litíase em rins com anomalia de posição e de fusão.
Summary Objective: To analyze the results of flexible ureterorenoscopy (F-URS) with holmium laser in the treatment of kidney stones with ectopic and fusion anomalies (horseshoe kidney and rotation anomalies). Method: We reviewed data from 13 patients with fusion and ectopic renal anomalies that underwent F-URS from April 2011 to April 2017. We analyzed demographic and clinical data (age, gender, BMI, anatomical abnormality, location and dimension of the renal calculi) and perioperative data (method of treatment, stone-free rate, number of days with DJ catheter and perioperative complications). Results: The mean stone size was 12.23 +/- 5.43 mm (range 6-22mm), located in the inferior (58.33%) and middle (16.76%) calyceal units, renal pelvis (16.67%) and multiple locations (8.33%). All 13 patients were treated with Ho-Yag laser, using dusting technique (25%), fragmentation and extraction of the calculi (58.33%) and mixed technique (16.67%). We did not have any severe perioperative complication. After 90 days, nine patients (75%) were considered stone free. Conclusion: Our data suggest that F-URS is a safe and feasible choice for the treatment of kidney stones in patients with renal ectopic and fusion anomalies.