Objective: To translate, establish the diagnostic accuracy, and standardize the Brazilian Portuguese version of the European Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) considering schooling level. Methods: We first completed an English-Brazilian Portuguese translation and back-translation of the CNTB. A total of 135 subjects aged over 60 years – 65 cognitively healthy (mean 72.83, SD = 7.71; mean education 9.42, SD = 7.69; illiterate = 25.8%) and 70 with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (mean 78.87, SD = 7.09; mean education 7.62, SD = 5.13; illiterate = 10%) – completed an interview and were screened for depression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to verify the accuracy of each CNTB test to separate AD from healthy controls in participants with low levels of education (≤ 4 years of schooling) and high levels of education (≥ 8 years of schooling). The optimal cutoff score was determined for each test. Results: The Recall of Pictures Test (RPT)-delayed recall and the Enhanced Cued Recall (ECR) had the highest power to separate AD from controls. The tests with the least impact from schooling were the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS), supermarket fluency, RPT naming, delayed recall and recognition, and ECR. Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the CNTB was well comprehended by the participants. The cognitive tests that best discriminated patients with AD from controls in lower and higher schooling participants were RPT delayed recall and ECR, both of which evaluate memory.
Objective: To validate the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale for use in Brazil (RUDAS-BR). Methods: We first completed an English-Brazilian Portuguese translation and back-translation of the RUDAS. A total of 135 subjects over 60 years of age were included: 65 cognitively healthy and 70 with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) according to the DSM-IV and Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria. All participants completed an interview and were screened for depression. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the RUDAS were compared with those of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) regarding the sensitivity and specificity of cutoffs, taking education into consideration. Results: The areas under the curve were similar for the RUDAS-BR (0.87 [95%CI 0.82-0.93]) and the MMSE (0.84 [95%CI 0.7-0.90]). RUDAS-BR scores < 23 indicated dementia, with sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 76.1%. MMSE < 24 indicated dementia, with sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 78.9%. The cutoff score was influenced by years of education on the MMSE, but not on the RUDAS-BR. Conclusions: The RUDAS-BR is as accurate as the MMSE in screening for dementia. RUDAS-BR scores were not influenced by education. The RUDAS-BR may improve the cognitive assessment of older persons who are illiterate or of lower educational attainment.
Objetivo Avaliar a cognição em idosos com depressão Maior (DM), doença de Alzheimer (DA) e Depressão na DA. Método Utilizou-se o Mini Mental, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Figura de Rey, Dígitos, Semelhanças, Trail Making A/B, Fluência Verbal e Stroop. ANOVA one-way e modelos multivariados foram utilizados para comparar o desempenho dos grupos. Resultados Foram avaliados 212 sujeitos. Comparado com DM, controles apresentaram desempenho significativamente melhor na atenção, memória de trabalho, velocidade de processamento e evocação. Os controles apresentaram desempenho significativamente superior em todas as avaliações, exceto na atenção comparado com DA. Fluência verbal, memória, velocidade de processamento e raciocínio abstrato na DM foi significativamente maior comparado com DA. DA foi significativamente melhor no estado cognitivo geral comparado a depressão na DA, os outros domínios foram semelhantes. Conclusão Observou-se um gradiente decrescente na cognição dos controles até a Depressão na DA, com os grupos DM e DA com desempenhos intermediários.
Objective To assess cognition in major depressed (MD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and depression in AD elderly. Method Subjects were evaluated by Mini Mental, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure, Digit Span, Similarities, Trail Making A/B, Verbal Fluency and Stroop. One-way ANOVA and multivariate models were used to compare the performance of each group on neuropsychological tests. Results We evaluated 212 subjects. Compared to MD, attention, working memory, processing speed and recall showed significantly better in controls. Controls showed significantly higher performance in all cognitive measures, except in attention compared to AD. Verbal fluency, memory, processing speed and abstract reasoning in MD was significantly higher compared to AD. AD was significantly better in general cognitive state than depression in AD. All other cognitive domains were similar. Conclusion A decreasing gradient in cognition appeared from the control to depression in AD, with MD and AD in an intermediate position.