Abstract The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.
Abstract Management councils of Protected Areas are an important tool to the exercise of social participation of individuals and groups struggling for social-environmental causes in Brazil’s democracy. This paper aims to integrate the main regulations guiding the social participation in Management Councils of Protected Areas in Brazil and the perception of managers and technicians in order to understand the process of elaboration of the rules, the behind the scenes, and negotiations. Our findings highlight that social participation has been formally ensured in many aspects, revealing democratic advancements in the field of Protected Areas management in Brazil. However, despite remarkable progress, many challenges remain, including aspects of representation, independency, level of influence, and sharing power in decision-making processes. The outcomes of participation are ongoing processes of learning and negotiation, which are reflected in the improvement of the legal arrangements analyzed.
Resumo Os Conselhos Gestores são considerados instrumentos de gestão inovadores e importantes ao exercício da democracia no campo socioambiental. Este artigo buscou integrar a evolução dos marcos regulatórios dos Conselhos Gestores de Unidades de Conservação e a visão de servidores envolvidos nos processos de formulação das normas, a fim de compreender a trajetória de negociação desses processos. Os resultados mostram que a participação social está formalmente garantida em diversos aspectos das normas analisadas, o que representa uma conquista para a gestão ambiental mais democrática e inclusiva de Unidades de Conservação. Ainda assim, foram identificados paradoxos e desafios, relativos a aspectos de representatividade, independência, influência e compartilhamento genuíno de poder em processos de tomada de decisões. Os resultados sociais da participação pressupõem processos contínuos de aprendizagem e negociação, que se refletem no aprimoramento dos arranjos jurídicos analisados.
Resumen Los Consejos Gestores han sido considerados instrumentos institucionales de administración, que son innovadores al ejercicio de la democracia brasileña en el campo socio ambiental. Este artículo buscó integrar la evolución de los marcos regulatorios de los consejos gestores de áreas protegidas de Brasil y la visión de servidores involucrados en los procesos de formulación de las normas, a fin de comprender la trayectoria de negociación de esos procesos. Los resultados muestran que la participación social está formalmente garantizada en diversos aspectos de las normas analizadas, lo que debe considerarse una conquista para la gestión de áreas protegidas en Brasil. Sin embargo, se señalan algunas paradojas y desafíos, incluyendo cuestiones de representatividad, independencia, influencia y compartimentos genuinos de poder en la toma de decisiones. Los resultados sociales de la participación presuponen procesos continuos de aprendizaje y negociación, que se reflejan en el perfeccionamiento de los arreglos jurídicos analizados.
ABSTRACT Dengue is the most important viral infection transmitted among humans by arthropod-borne. There are currently no vaccines or specific therapeutical treatment. Therefore, immunomodulatory compounds from plants have been widely examined for their antiviral effects. Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, has scientifically proven to present immunomodulatory activities. Here we assessed the antiviral activity of leaf hydroalcoholic extract, warifteine or methylwarifteine from C. sympodialis in an in vitro dengue virus infection model. The results demonstrated that leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine treatment did not reduce dengue virus-Ag+ hepatocyte (Huh-7 cell) rates in present experimental conditions. However, we assessed the potential antiviral effect of leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine on dengue virus-infection by the production of inflammatory molecules, TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2. Dengue virus infection enhanced TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2 production in infected Huh-7 cells and leaf hydroalcoholic extract but not warifteine/methylwarifteine treatments, significantly reduced these molecules in infected cells. In dengue virus-infected Huh-7 cells, non-structural protein-1 is produced and leaf hydroalcoholic extract significantly inhibited it independently of alkaloids. Our findings imply that leaf hydroalcoholic extract may attenuate dengue virus infection in Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the enhanced of pro-inflammatory mediators and non-structural protein-1 production induce by dengue virus independently of warifteine/methywarifteine its major compound.
This paper discusses the influence of the flow of a fluid from the static regime to the turbulent in CO2 corrosion experienced by low carbon steel. A more comprehensive approach to CO2 corrosion implies taking the free flowing velocity and shear stress of the fluid and the surface roughness of the material into consideration. Low carbon steel samples in two different superficial finish conditions were used as the rotating cylinder electrode. The corrosion rate were determined by linear polarization at 25 °C in a 0.5 mol/L NaHCO3 solution purged with CO2 at 1 atm pressure in pH 7.5. The effect of superficial finish on CO2 corrosion in flow conditions was studied. The results obtained showed that the corrosion rate increases with flow velocity and is influenced by surface roughness.
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
A floristic survey of the class Euglenophyceae in Panati Lake (7º11'14" S and 36º49'52" W) is presented. The samples were collected between November 2005 and April 2007 along the margins of the lake, and a total of 29 taxa were collected, described, and illustrated, comprising 11 specifics and 18 infraspecifics, with five typical and 13 non-typical varieties. The genus Trachelomonas showed the greatest richness (13 taxa), followed by the genus Lepocinclis (seven taxa). All of the 29 taxa cataloged had been previously reported for Brazil, most with wide geographical distributions, but all were new records for Paraíba State, and 25 new for northeastern Brazil - reflecting the need for more taxonomic studies of the Euglenophyceae in these locations.