PURPOSE:To evaluate wound contraction and the concentration of mast cells in skin wounds treated with 5% BPT essential oil-based ointment in rats.METHODS:Twenty rats, male, of adult age, were submitted to skin surgery on the right (RA) and left antimeres (LA) of the thoracic region. They were divided into two groups: control (RA - wounds receiving daily topical application of vaseline and lanolin) and treated (LA - wounds treated daily with the topical ointment). The skin region with wounds were collected at days 4, 7, 14 and 21 after surgery. Those were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and later processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were obtained and stained by H.E for histopathology analysis. The degree of epithelial contraction was measured and mast cell concentration were also evaluated.RESULTS:The treated group showed higher mast cell concentrations (p<0.05) associated with increased contraction at day 7 and 14 respectively.CONCLUSION: Ointment containing 5% Brazilian pepper tree oil increases mast cell concentration and promotes skin wound contraction in rats.
Nitric oxide (NO) participates in neuronal lesions in the digestive form of Chagas disease and the proximity of parasitised glial cells and neurons in damaged myenteric ganglia is a frequent finding. Glial cells have crucial roles in many neuropathological situations and are potential sources of NO. Here, we investigate peripheral glial cell response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection to clarify the role of these cells in the neuronal lesion pathogenesis of Chagas disease. We used primary glial cell cultures from superior cervical ganglion to investigate cell activation and NO production after T. cruzi infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in comparison to peritoneal macrophages. T. cruzi infection was greater in glial cells, despite similar levels of NO production in both cell types. Glial cells responded similarly to T. cruzi and LPS, but were less responsive to LPS than macrophages were. Our observations contribute to the understanding of Chagas disease pathogenesis, as based on the high susceptibility of autonomic glial cells to T. cruzi infection with subsequent NO production. Moreover, our findings will facilitate future research into the immune responses and activation mechanisms of peripheral glial cells, which are important for understanding the paradoxical responses of this cell type in neuronal lesions and neuroprotection.
PURPOSE: To investigate immunohistochemical aspects of the myenteric plexus of valves constructed in the colon of rats to verify whether any denervation occurs both at the operative site and in those areas adjacent to the third valve. METHODS: Thirty six male Wistar rats divided into the following three groups were used: Control Group (CG); Amputated Group (AG); Amputated Group with Valves (AGWV). In AG was held in the rectum amputation and the colon was sutured to the skin elaborating the perineal colostomy. In AGWV was held in the rectum amputation. A laparotomy was performed for the manufacture of valves (seromyotomy) in the colon. After this step, the colon was sutured to the skin elaborating the perineal colostomy. The density of the neural elements in the muscular wall as marked specifically using Protein Gene Product (PGP) 9.5 and utilising the proper tools of the KS300 software for measuring the area. From these measurements, a relation and three proportions were drawn and analysed according to the mean of the averages obtained from the measured images. RESULTS: Immunoexpression of PGP 9.5 demonstrated a total absence of neural elements and myenteric plexus at the valve site. The density of the neural elements in the circular muscular layer at sites adjacent to the 3rd valve was lesser, however, was not significantly different. CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical study of valves constructed in the colon of rats submitted to abdominoperineal amputation and perineal colostomy revealed denervation at the seromyotomy site.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius) ointment on skin wound healing in rats. METHODS: Adult male rats (n=20) were divided into four groups of five animals each, as follows: G4, G7, G14 and G21, which corresponds to 4th, 7th, 14th and 21th days postoperatively. Each animal were made two incisions on the skin, including the subcutaneous tissue, in the right and left sides of thoracic region, separated by a distance of two inches. The right lesion was treated with base ointment (vaseline, lanolin); the left one was treated with base ointment containing 5% of aroeira oil. At the end of each experimental period the lesions were evaluated for the contraction degree. Then held the collection of fragments that were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for paraffin embedding. In the histological sections (5μm) was evaluated the morphology and quantified the collagen and blood vessels. The data obtained were submitted to ANOVA test complemented by Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The contraction of the lesions was higher in wounds treated with aroeira oil than in controls at 7th and 14th days (p<0.01), whereas in the 21st day all lesions were already completely healed. The morphology showed granulation tissue more developed, with fibroblasts more bulky and collagen fibers more arranged in the experimental group at 4th, 7th and 14th days. The morphometry showed a significant increase in the quantification of collagen fibers in the experimental group at 7th and 14th days (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The aroeira oil accelerates the healing process of wounds as a macroscopic, morphological and morphometrical analysis.
We describe the relationship between lesion outcome and histopathological hallmarks in susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (C57BL/6 and IL-4-deficient BALB/c) mouse strains over the course of a 12-week-infection with Leishmania major in the ear. The infiltration of mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear cells occurred within 6 h and mononuclear cells predominated one week post-infection. Permissive intracellular growth of the pathogen was associated with non-healing lesions. In contrast, tissue damage and clearance of the parasite was observed in healing lesions and was associated with inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The identification of the structural components of tissue reaction to the parasite in this study furthers our understanding of subjacent immune effector mechanisms.
A toxina do escorpião induz a várias alterações fisiológicas, como disturbio do ritmo cardíaco, insuficiência cardíaca, choque, hipersecreção pancreática, aborto, arritmias respiratórias e edema pulmonar. A purificação de frações do veneno é um processo trabalhoso. Como alternativa utilizam-se animais pequenos. No presente estudo utilizou-se 36 camundongos que receberam doses progressivas de toxinas do escorpião (TsTX), intraperitoneal ou intravenosa e foram observados por tres horas ou sacrificados. As alteraçòes pulmonares foram determinadas pela fórmula peso do pulmão x 100/ peso corporal e pela análise hitológica dos pulmões a fim de determinar que o camundongo pode ser um modelo experimental do envenenamento pelo escorpião. Os dados foram analizados pela análise de variância considerando-se p<0,05 indicando significancia. Os experimentos não mostraram diferença nos sinais clínicos do envenenamento comparando-se o camundongo com outros mamíferos. Os efeitos foram dose-dependente e que pela via venosa necessita-se menos quantidade para produzir as mesmas alterações. Nos aspectos histológicos pulmonares observou-se edema septal e não alveolar. Presume-se que as diferenças observadas são devidas a variações específicas das espécies.
The scorpion toxin induces a number of physiological parameters alterations, as disturbance of cardiac rhythm, heart failure, shock, pancreatic hypersecretion, abortion, respiratory arrhytmias and pulmonary edema. As the purification of the venom fractions is a laborious process, one alternative for this would be the utilization of small animals. We utilized in the present study thity-six mice that received progressive doses of scorpion toxin TsTX), i.p. or i.v., and were observed for three hours or sacrificed, and the pulmonary alterations were determined by the lung-body index and by histological analysis of the lungs in order to determine if the mouse can be an esperimental model for scorpion envenomation. The data were analyzed by One Way analysis of variance with p<0,05 indicating significance. These experiments showed no differences in clinical signs of scorpion envenomation between mice and other mammalians, the effects were dose-dependent and the i.v. administration needed less quantity to produce the same changings. In the pulmonary histology we observed septal but not alveolar edema, and we presumed that these differences are due to species-specific variations.