RESUMO: Os solos de várzea são caracterizados pela alta suscetibilidade à saturação por água. Esta condição anaeróbica é geralmente encontrada em solos arrozeiros e altera o processo de decomposição dos compostos orgânicos do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade microbiana e enzimática de um solo de várzea sob diferentes teores de umidade no solo. Um Planossolo historicamente cultivado com arroz irrigado foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade microbiana e enzimática em tratamentos com diferentes níveis de umidade do solo, sendo: i) 60% de capacidade de campo (CC) (60%CC); ii) 100% da CC (100%CC); iii) solo inundado com uma camada de água de 2 cm acima da superfície do solo; e iv) solo mantido a 60%CC com inundação após 29 dias da incubação. A maior atividade microbiana do solo foi observada no tratamento 100%CC, sendo 41% maior que o tratamento 60%CC e 2% maior que tratamento inundado. Os dados da atividade enzimática pela hidrólise do diacetato de fluoresceína (FDA) corroboraram a maior liberação de CO2 nos tratamentos com maior umidade do solo. Diferentemente dos resultados encontrados, as principais metodologias para avaliação da atividade microbiana ainda recomendam manter o solo com umidade próxima a 60% da CC. No entanto, em solos de várzea com históricos de cultivos de arroz, a manutenção de umidade próxima a 60% da CC pode limitar a atividade microbiana. A técnica de respiração do solo pode ser usada para avaliar a atividade microbiana em condições de solo inundado. No entanto, mais estudos devem ser realizados para entender o efeito do histórico de cultivo na comunidade microbiana nesses ambientes.
ABSTRACT: The lowland soils are characterized by high susceptibility to water saturation. This anaerobic condition is usually reported in paddy fields and alters the decomposition process of soil organic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soil microbial and enzymatic activity of a lowland soil at different soil moisture contents. A poorly drained Albaqualf cultivated with irrigated rice was used to evaluate microbial and enzymatic activity in treatments with different levels of soil moisture, being: i) 60% of field capacity (FC) (60%FC); ii) 100% of FC (100%FC); iii) flooded soil with a 2 cm water layer above soil surface, and iv) soil kept at 60%FC with late flood after 29 days the incubation. The greater soil microbial activity was observed in the 100%FC treatment, being 41% greater than 60%FC treatment and only 2% higher than flooded treatment. The enzymatic activity data by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis corroborated the higher CO2 release in treatments with higher soil moisture content. Differently from the results reported, the main methodologies to evaluate microbial activity still recommend maintenance of the soil with a moisture content close to 60% of the FC. However, in lowland soil with history of frequent paddy fields, the maintenance of moisture close to 60% of the FC can limit the microbial activity. The soil respiration technique can be used to evaluate the microbial activity in flooded soil conditions. However, further studies should be conducted to understand the effect of the cultivation history on the microbial community of these environments.
ABSTRACT This paper aims to discuss the impact of the introduction of pastures and grazing animals in agricultural systems. For the purposes of this manuscript, we focus on within-farm integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS), typical of Southern Brazil. These ICLS are designed to create and enhance the synergisms and emergent properties have arisen from agricultural areas where livestock activities are integrated with crops. We show that the introduction of the crop component will affect less the preceding condition than the introduction of the livestock component. While the introduction of crops in pastoral systems represents increasing diversity of the plant component, the introduction of animals would represent the entry of new flows and interactions within the system. Thus, given the new complexity levels achieved from the introduction of grazing, the probability of arising emergent properties is theoretically much higher. However, grazing management is vital in determining the success or failure of such initiative. The grazing intensity practiced during the pasture phase would affect the canopy structure and the forage availability to animals. In adequate and moderate grazing intensities, it is possible to affirm that livestock combined with crops (ICLS) has a potential positive impact. As important as the improvements that grazing animals can generate to the soil-plant components, the economic resilience remarkably increases when pasture rotations are introduced compared with purely agriculture systems, particularly in climate-risk situations. Thus, the integration of the pastoral component can enhance the sustainable intensification of food production, but it modifies simple, pure agricultural systems into more complex and knowledge-demanding production systems.
ABSTRACT The use of gypsum to improve the root environment in tropical soils in the southeastern and central-western regions of Brazil is a widespread practice with well-established recommendation criteria. However, only recently gypsum began to be used on subtropical soils in South of Brazil, so available knowledge of its effect on crop yield is incipient and mainly for soils under no-till (NT) systems. Avaiable studies span a wide range of responses, from a substantial increase to a slight reduction in crop yield. Also, the specific conditions leading to a favorable effect of gypsum application on crop yield are yet to be accurately identified. The primary objectives of this study were to examine previously reported results to assess the likelihood of a crop response to gypsum and to develop useful recommendation criteria for gypsum application to subtropical soils under NT in Brazil. For this purpose, we examined the results of a total of 73 growing seasons, reported in 20 different scientific publications that assessed grain yield as a function of gypsum rates. Four different scenarios were examined, by the occurrence or not of high subsurface acidity (viz., Al saturation >20 % and/or exchangeable Ca <0.5 cmolc dm-3 in the 0.20-0.40 m soil layer) and of water deficiency during the crop cycle. Based on the results, for grasses, 10 % Al saturation and/or 3 cmolc dm-3 exchangeable Ca in the soil subsurface layer (0.20-0.40 m) is more suitable than the current recommendation (Al saturation of 20 % and/or 0.5 cmolc dm-3 Ca) for subtropical NT soils in Brazil. Also, applying gypsum to NT soils with low subsurface acidity (Al saturation <10 %) and with an adequate Ca content (>3 cmolc dm-3) failed to increase crop yield, irrespective of the soil water status. Under these conditions, high gypsum rates (6-15 Mg ha−1) may even reduce grain yield, possibly by inducing K and Mg deficiency. On the other hand, applying gypsum to soils with high subsurface acidity increased yield by 16 % in corn (87 % of cases) and by 19 % in winter cereals (83 % of cases), whether or not the soil was water-deficient. By contrast, soybean yield was only increased by gypsum applied in the simultaneous presence of high soil subsurface acidity and water deficiency (average increase 27 %, 100 % of cases).
ABSTRACT: Mean grain yield of flooded rice in southern Brazil has increased in recent years due to the use of high-yield cultivars and improvement of crop management practices. Nevertheless, stagnation in grain yields has been observed in some rice-producing regions. Adoption of conservation tillage systems based on cover crops may be a strategy to increase rice grain yield potential. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops on initial establishment, development, and grain yield of flooded rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under different fertilization levels and no-tillage. A field experiment was carried out for three consecutive years (2010/11, 2011/12, and 2012/13) in Cachoeirinha, Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. Treatments included three winter cover crops [ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), native serradella (Ornithopus micranthus Benth.), and a ryegrass-serradella mixture] and fallow, and three fertilization levels for rice grown in succession. More than 3 Mg ha−1 of serradella aboveground residue or 4 Mg ha−1 of ryegrass residue limited rice emergence in the first year when rainfall in the sowing-emergence period was higher than in the second and third years. In contrast, a large amount of residue (serradella >2 Mg ha−1; ryegrass >3 Mg ha−1) was beneficial to rice emergence when rainfall was low in the sowing-emergence period of the second and third years. The serradella cover crop increased rice aboveground biomass at anthesis by 22 % compared to the ryegrass cover crop. Furthermore, rice grain yield was 15 % higher in succession to serradella than to ryegrass in the third year. Continuous cultivation of flooded rice in succession to ryegrass over three years reduced grain yield by around 1.4 Mg ha−1, regardless of fertilization level. Fertilization for very high production expectations increased rice grain yield in all years, especially in the second year, when solar radiation was higher than normal. The use of winter cover crops affected plant emergence, aboveground biomass, and grain yield of flooded rice. Rice grain yield increased with increases in fertilization level, and this response was not affected by the previous cover crop.
RESUMO: A pastagem nativa é uma importante fonte de forragem para produção de bovinos e ovinos no bioma Pampa. A introdução do azevém e a fertilização nitrogenada são alternativas que visam intensificar a exploração pecuária de forma mais sustentável, podendo causar alterações em vários atributos do solo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de longo prazo de fertilização nitrogenada sobre atributos indicadores da saúde do solo em pastagem nativa com introdução de azevém anual. O experimento consistiu de uma sucessão secundária da pastagem natural submetida ao pastejo contínuo por bovinos e ovinos, com oferta de forragem constante. Em 1996, anteriormente ao inicio do experimento, a área experimental foi calcareada para correção da acidez do solo. O experimento foi então iniciado, sendo constituído da aplicação de três doses de N em cobertura, correspondendo a 0, 100 e 200kg ha-1 ano-1 de N. Em 2010, amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas de 0-20 e 20-40cm para análise de C e N total, particulado e associado aos minerais, além de uma área de referência (campo nativo sem pastejo). Análises microbiológicas foram conduzidas nas camadas de 0-5 e 5-10cm. A adubação nitrogenada de longo prazo em solos de campo nativo com introdução de azevém não altera os estoques totais de C e N, mas aumenta a fração particulada de N na dose de 100kg ha-1 ano-1. Em relação à atividade microbiana, o aumento na dose do fertilizante aumenta a respiração dos microrganismos, assim como o N da sua biomassa.
ABSTRACT: Native pastures are of great importance for cattle and sheep nutrition in the Pampa biome. However, due to its low productivity, the Italian ryegrass introduction and the nitrogen (N) fertilization are alternatives proposed to intensify livestock production in a sustainable manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term N application on soil health indicators in a native pasture with Italian ryegrass introduction in southern Brazil. The experiment consists of a secondary native pasture under continuous grazing and constant herbage allowance. In 1996 experimental area was broadcast limed and the experiment was initiated, testing three N topdressing rates (0, 100 and 200kg N ha-1 year-1). In 2010 soil of experimental and reference area of non grazed native grassland was sampled in the soil layers of 0-20 and 20-40cm. Total, particulate and mineral associated carbon (C) and N stocks were evaluated. Soil microbiological attributes were evaluated in 0-5 and 5-10cm soil layers. The long-term N fertilization in soils with native pasture and Italian ryegrass introduction did not affect total C and N stocks. However, increases in N particulate fraction were seen with 100kg ha-1 year-1 of N rate of fertilization. Furthermore, the increase in N rates increased N microbial biomass and respiration.
ABSTRACT Under integrated crop-livestock production systems (ICLS), plant and animal residues are important nutrient stocks for plant growth. Grazing management, by affecting the numbers of both plants and animals and the quality of residues, will influence nutrient release rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of grazing intensity on Ca and Mg release from pasture, dung, and soybean residues in a long-term no-till integrated soybean-cattle system. The experiment was established in May 2001 in a Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico (Rhodic Hapludox). Treatments were a gradient of grazing intensity, determined by managing a black oat + Italian ryegrass pasture at 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm grazing height and no-grazing (NG), followed by soybean cropping. Ca and Mg release rates were determined in two entire cycles (2009/11). Moderate grazing (20 and 30 cm sward height) led to greater Ca and Mg release rates from pasture and dung residues, with low average half-life values (13 and 3 days for Ca and 16 and 6 days for Mg for pasture and dung, respectively). Grazing compared with NG resulted in greater Ca and Mg release from pasture and dung residues. Grazing intensity did not affect Ca and Mg release rates or amounts from soybean residues, but Ca and Mg release rates were greater from soybean leaves than from stems. Although moderate grazing intensities produce higher quality residues and higher calcium and magnesium release rates, a higher total nutrient amount is released by light grazing intensity and no-grazing, determined by higher residue production. Grazing intensity is, then, important for nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant-animal continuum.
RESUMO: As recomendações de adubação para a cultura do arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul vêm passando por constante evolução ao longo dos anos. Com isso, fatores como o ciclo de desenvolvimento das variedades e a época de semeadura podem ter influência sobre o potencial de resposta à adubação. Nesse sentido, ferramentas computacionais que consideram esses e outros aspectos importantes podem potencializar a resposta do arroz à adubação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho descrever o programa computacional "Adubarroz". Esse software fornece a recomendação de adubação e calagem para o arroz, a partir das informações fornecidas pelo usuário. O sistema considera diversos fatores que regulam a resposta à adubação, gerando um relatório final com expressão gráfica do manejo dos insumos no tempo.
ABSTRACT: Recommendations for fertilizing irrigated rice in southern Brazil have been constantly evolving over years. In this process, the influence of factors such as the development cycle of varieties and sowing period increased. Thus, computational tools that take these and others important aspects into account can potentiate the fertilization response of rice. This study describes the computer program "ADUBARROZ". The software provides recommendations of fertilizer rates and liming requirements of irrigated rice, based on information entered by the user. The system takes various factors that regulate the crop response to fertilization into account. A final report is established with the graphical representation of input management over time.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de intensidades de pastejo após 11 anos de um sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária, em plantio direto, na umidade do solo e em parâmetros fisiológicos da soja durante uma safra de verão afetada por seca. O experimento foi iniciado em 2001, em um Latossolo Vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram na sucessão de soja (verão) e pastagem mista de aveia-preta + azevém (inverno), com diferentes intensidades de pastejo por bovino de corte: pastejo intensivo, com altura de pastejo de 0,10 m; pastejo moderado, com altura de pastejo de 0,20 m; e sem pastejo. No ciclo da soja, na safra 2011/2012, a precipitação foi de 40% da normal climatológica. A umidade do solo ficou dentro dos limites de água disponível, tanto em pastejo moderado quanto sem pastejo, na camada de 0,00-0,50 m, mas, em pastejo intensivo, a umidade do solo foi menor que o ponto de murcha permanente, especialmente até 0,20 m de altura de pastejo. O pastejo intensivo afetou negativamente os parâmetros fisiológicos da soja, que atingiu picos de -2.5 MPa e +6°C para potencial de água na folha e diferença entre temperatura do ar e da folha, respectivamente. O pastejo moderado ou a ausência de pastejo, durante o inverno, acarreta respostas fisiológicas similares, o que contribui para a homeostase da soja.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of grazing intensities after 11 years of an integrated crop-livestock system, under no-tillage, on soil moisture and soybean physiological parameters during a summer season affected by drought. The experiment was established in 2001 on a Rhodic Hapludox. Treatments consisted in the succession of soybean (summer) and a mixed pasture of black oat + Italian ryegrass (winter), under different beef-cattle grazing intensities: intensive grazing, with 0.10-m pasture height; moderate grazing, with 0.20-m pasture height; and no grazing. During the soybean cycle, in the 2011/2012 crop season, rainfall was 40% of the climatological normal. The soil moisture was within the limits of available water both under moderate grazing and no grazing, at 0.00-0.50-m soil depth, but, under intensive grazing, it was below the permanent wilting point, especially up to the grazing height of 0.20 m. Intensive grazing affected negatively the plant physiology parameters, reaching peaks of -2.5 MPa and +6°C for leaf water potential and leaf-air temperature difference, respectively. Moderate grazing or the absence of grazing, during the winter season, results in similar physiological responses, contributing to soybean plant homeostasis.
RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes intensidades de pastejo sob a produção de forragem e o desempenho animal de novilhos superprecoces mantidos sob pastejo contínuo em sistema integrado de produção agropecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram das alturas de manejo de pasto de 10; 20; 30 e 40 cm; e de um tratamento sem pastejo. Os pastos eram constituídos de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.) e azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) em sucessão a cultura da soja (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). As variáveis massa de forragem, oferta de forragem e palhada residual se ajustaram de forma positiva e linear ao incremento da altura do pasto (P≤0,0001). O desempenho individual de novilhos apresentou resposta quadrática (P = 0,0017) e foi otimizado com o incremento na altura do pasto até valores próximos a 30 cm, com ganho de peso por animal de aproximadamente 1,0 kg dia-1. O mesmo foi observado para o peso vivo ao abate e as características de carcaça (P≤0,0305). Os resultados sugerem que alturas próximas a 30 cm permitem maiores ganhos individuais, devido ao aumento da quantidade de forragem disponível por animal e a melhor qualidade da forragem consumida, não havendo comprometimento da palhada residual destinada à cultura subsequente.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different grazing intensities on forage production and animal performance of yearling steers kept under permanent grazing in an integrated crop-livestock system. The treatments consisted of areas with sward heights of 10; 20; 30 and 40 cm, and one treatment with no grazing. The pastures were of bristle oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) following soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). The variables forage mass, forage allowance and residual straw showed a positive and linear fit to the increasing sward height (P≤0.0001). Average daily gain of steers displayed a quadratic response (P = 0.0017), being optimal with increases in grazing height up to values of near 30 cm, showing a weight gain per animal of approximately 1.0 kg day-1. A similar response was seen for live weight at slaughter and carcass characteristics (P≤0.0305). The results suggest that sward heights close to 30 cm provide greater individual gains, due to the increase in forage available to each animal and the better quality of the consumed forage without compromising the residual straw destined for the following crop.
ABSTRACT In no-tillage (NT) systems, there is no plowed layer since the soil is not tilled. Thus, the soil layer for fertility evaluation can be defined as the one in which the fertility indices are affected by the surface application of lime and fertilizers and soil properties have the closest relationship with crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate soil layer under long-term NT for sampling for fertility evaluation in the South-Central region of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 99 field experiments of crop rotations were performed, including soybean, corn, barley, wheat, and white oat, all on Oxisols (Hapludox). Despite the surface application, lime and fertilizers increased base saturation (V) and available K to a depth of 0.20 m. The relationship with crop yields was high for V and low for available K for both soil layers (0.00-0.10 and 0.00-0.20 m); for P, however, the relationships with soybean and corn yields were strongest in the 0.00-0.20 m layer. Thus, considering the soil layer fertilized by the surface application of lime and potassium fertilizers and the highest relationship of soil P contents with the yield of the main crops of the crop rotation, the 0.00-0.20 m layer is the most appropriate for soil fertility evaluation under long-term no-tillage systems.
ABSTRACT Root growth can be limited by physical and chemical conditions of the soil. Compacted and acidic soils, where there is an occurrence of exchangeable Al, constitute barriers to use of the soil by plant roots. The hypothesis of this study was that physical and chemical properties of the inter-row soil of a peach orchard influence the root distribution of different rootstocks. The aim of this study was to describe and register the soil physical and chemical properties and root distribution in the soil profile of the inter-row of seven years old mature peach (Prunus persica) orchard. Samples of soil (classified as an Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico [Rhodic Paleudult] with 180 g kg-1 clay, 120 g kg-1 silt, and 700 g kg-1 sand) and roots were collected from orchard inter-rows of ‘Maciel’ peach, grafted onto ‘Okinawa’ and ‘Nemaguard’ rootstock, at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 m from the trunk, and at every 0.10 m, up to a depth of 0.50 m. The soil samples were sieved and the roots washed. A subsample was removed from each sample for chemical analysis. Resistance to penetration (RP) was used as an indicator of soil compaction. A close relationship was found among chemical properties, RP, and root distribution. Root density was affected by the presence of compacted regions (RP >2,000 kPa) and by high Al saturation in the exchange complex in the soil profile. There was a reduction in the frequency of thick roots (Ø >2 mm) in the samples collected in portions of compacted soil and at increasing soil depth. The compacted portion of the inter-row limits lateral distribution of the peach tree root system, while aluminum limits its depth.
ABSTRACT: Irrigated rice in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) has shown significant growth in yield in recent years due to improved management practices, especially in regard to fertilizer use. However, the response curves that led to the current fertilizer recommendations do not consider integrated systems prevailing in rice-producing regions that have adopted the practice of integrated crop-livestock systems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of current fertilizer recommendations for irrigated rice in lowland soils in Rio Grande do Sul under integrated crop-livestock systems for different periods of time. The experiments were performed in the 2012/2013 growing season on four farms in the state with different forage species under cattle grazing. In these areas, fertilizer recommendations were made based on previous soil analyses, and treatments consisted of fractions of the currently recommended application rates. At the end of the crop cycle, the percentages of maximum technical efficiency (PMTE) and maximum economic efficiency (PMEE) of NPK fertilizers, and increases in yield and net income provided by PMEE were determined. Rice yield increased and fertilizer response decreased over time in a rice-beef cattle integrated system. The highest incomes with fertilization of irrigated rice occurred at lower application rates than those recommended by soil analysis.
Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da intensidade de pastejo na decomposição dos resíduos da pastagem utilizada como cultura de cobertura, do esterco e da soja, bem como a liberação de C e N desses resíduos, em um sistema integrado de produção de soja e bovinos de corte, em plantio direto e em longo-prazo. O experimento foi iniciado em 2001, com soja cultivada no verão e aveia-preta + azevém no inverno. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de pasto (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm), além de uma área sem pastejo, como controle. Em 2009-2011, resíduos da pastagem, do esterco, e do caule e das folhas de soja foram alocados em sacos de decomposição feitos com malha de nylon e decompostos até 258 dias. Com o aumento da intensidade de pastejo, a matéria seca residual da pastagem diminuiu e a do esterco aumentou. A concentração de lignina e as taxas de liberação de C da pastagem e do esterco foram menores com a intensidade de pastejo moderada. A liberação de C e N do resíduo de soja não é afetada pela intensidade de pastejo. A intensidade moderada de pastejo produz resíduos de maior qualidade, tanto para a pastagem quanto para o esterco. Já a quantidade total de C e N liberada é influenciada pela maior quantidade de matéria seca residual produzida quando a pastagem foi submetida ao pastejo leve ou não foi pastejada.
Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm), plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.
RESUMOEm Sistemas Integrados de Produção Agropecuária, a presença dos animais em pastejo pode provocar alterações na produção das culturas subsequentes. Com o objetivo de verificar como diferentes manejos do pasto poderiam afetar o cultivo de soja, a 9ª fase de lavoura em rotação pecuária/lavoura foi avaliada. Os tratamentos foram intensidades de pastejo (10; 20; 30; 40 cm de altura do pasto), aplicados desde 2001, em pasto misto de aveia e azevém anual, além de área sem pastejo utilizada como testemunha. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Houve diferença na população inicial de plantas e na massa do nódulo (P<0,05), porém, o número e a massa de nódulos por planta foi semelhante (P>0,05). O rendimento de soja foi diferente entre os tratamentos, porém, não houve diferença entre áreas pastejadas e não pastejadas. Houve diferença para cobertura e frequência de espécies indesejáveis entre tratamentos (P>0,05). Em conclusão, diferentes intensidades de pastejo afetam os parâmetros de rendimento e desenvolvimento da soja, mas apenas a intensidade de pastejo de 10 cm pode comprometer a safra de soja subsequente.
ABSTRACTGrazing livestock in integrated crop-livestock systems can cause impacts in the subsequent crop cycle. Aiming to investigate how grazing could affect soybean, the 9th crop cycle of a pasture/soybean rotation was assessed. Treatments were grazing intensities (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm of sward height) applied since 2001 in a mixed of oat and annual ryegrass; and an additional no grazing area as control. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Grazing affected soybean population and the mass of individual nodules (P<0.05), while the number and mass of nodules per plant were similar (P>0.05). Soybean yield showed differences among treatments, but no difference was found between grazed and non-grazed areas. Grazing intensities impact the coverage and frequency of weeds (P>0.05). In conclusion, grazing intensity impacts different parameters of soybean yield and development, but only the grazing intensity of 10 cm can jeopardize the succeeding soybean crop.
<p>Uso do solo e manejo da adubação, bem como sistemas de cultivo influenciam fósforo (P) disponíveis no solo. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se as frações de P e disponibilidade em cronossequência de interferência antrópica em um Plintossolo Háplico com sete (NT7), onze (NT11) e dezesseis (NT16) anos de sistema de plantio direto. Concentrações lábeis de P, no solo, foram responsáveis por 10, 8 e 9 % do total de P para os tratamentos NT7, NT11 e NT16, respectivamente, variando entre 99 e 122 mg dm<sup>-3</sup>, indicando que não houve influência do tempo em plantio direto. No entanto, os teores de P moderadamente lábil aumentou com o tempo: NT7<NT11<NT16 (237, 341, e 375 mg dm<sup>-3</sup>, respectivamente), seguindo a elevaçãodos teores de óxidos de ferro, indicando uma relação entre mineralogia e acúmulo de P. Independentemente do período de plantio direto, os teores de P extraídos por Mehlich<sup>-1</sup>foram menores, subestimando o teor de P disponível, quando comparado com a extração com resina. Os estoques de P lábil são suficientes para manter rendimentos elevados, de acordo com as recomendações para a região do Cerrado. Mesmo que os teores de P lábil tenham sido reduzidos, ao adotar sistema de plantio direto, o conteúdo e as reservas de P, no solo, após vários anos, são altos o suficiente para fornecer o rendimento das culturas adequadas.</p>
<p>Soil use and fertilizer management as well as cropping systems influence phosphorus (P) availability in the soil. This study evaluated P fractions and availability in a chronosequence of anthropic influence in a Haplic Plinthosol, in sites under no-till for different time periods: seven (NT7), eleven (NT11), and sixteen (NT16) years. Labile P concentrations in the soil accounted for 10%, 8%, and 9% of the total P for treatments NT7, NT11, and NT16, respectively. The labile P values ranged between 99 and 122 mg dm<sup>-3</sup>andindicatied no time in no-tillage influence on labile P under in the studied Plinthosol. However, moderately labile P contents increased with time: NT7 < NT11 < NT16 (237, 341, and 375 mg dm<sup>-3</sup>, respectively). This increased followed the elevation in iron oxide contents, indicating a relationship between mineralogy and P accumulation. Regardless of no-tillage period, P contents extracted by Mehlich-1 were lower, underestimating the available P content, when compared with the extraction using a P selective resin. The stocks of labile P were sufficient to maintain high crop yields, according to the recommendations for the Cerrado region. Even if labile P contents are reduced, when adopting no-till system, the contents and stocks of P in the soil after several years were high enough to provide for adequate crop yields.</p>