Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a fruit which has important pharmacological activities and has been attracting attention due to its important antioxidant activity, a significant feature in relation to cosmetics. Formulations containing different concentrations of an ethanolic extract of pomegranate (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0%) (w/w) as an antioxidant agent showed that this is an interesting alternative for the use of natural products with biological activity. The stability and rheology of semissolid systems containing an extract of this plant were evaluated. Preliminary stability studies showed greater physico-chemical stability of the formulation, and thus it was used in an accelerated stability study, as well the quantification of total phenolic compounds and the determination of antioxidant activity. It was observed that different concentrations of the extract did not significantly influence the stability. Moreover, the formulation was found to have better stability when stored at room temperature than under heated or cooled conditions. Formulations containing 0.1 and 5.0% of extract showed more stable rheological behavior, due to the absence of a solid/liquid transition in the rheogram. Tests confirmed the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity, demonstrating the potential of this plant for use in cosmetology as an antioxidant.
ABSTRACT The total phenol concentration present in Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae) leaves in the Pantanal was analyzed. Work was carried out between September/2012 and June/2013 which is made up by the dry season (September/2012), the beginning of the rising water (December/2012), the high water (March/2013) followed by the receding water period (June/2013). For the purpose of the research fifteen trees were selected, five from each sample area. The phenolic content in the leaves was obtained from the samples which were dried, steeped with ethanol: water and centrifuged. The extract was used to determine the concentration of total phenols using the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrometric method. There was no difference among the sampling areas; however the values were different in relation to seasonal periods. The lowest concentration was recorded in the dry season (young leaves) increasing gradually at the beginning of the rising water, with higher levels at the end of high water and receding water season. The highest concentration of phenols occurred during the receding water period (end of the life cycle of V. divergens leaves), followed by high and rising water periods. The increase in phenol concentration is associated with the Pantanal flood cycle, and related to the phenology of the V. divergens leaves.
RESUMO Analisou-se a concentração de fenóis totais presentes nas folhas de Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae) na região norte do Pantanal, coletadas entre setembro de 2012 e junho de 2013, compreendendo o período de seca (setembro/2012), o começo do período de inundação (dezembro/2012), período de cheia (março/2013) seguido pela vazante (junho/2013). Para a coleta foram selecionadas 15 árvores, cinco em cada área amostral. A concentração de fenóis nas folhas foi obtida com as amostras secas à 40ºC, maceradas com etanol: água e centrifugada. O extrato foi usado para determinação da concentração de fenóis totais utilizando-se o método espectrométrico de Folin-Ciocalteu. Não houve diferença entre as áreas amostrais, entretanto os valores foram diferentes em relação aos períodos sazonais. A menor concentração foi registrada no período da seca (folhas jovens) aumentando gradativamente no início do período de enchente com maiores níveis no final do período de inundação. A maior concentração de fenóis ocorreu durante a vazante (final do ciclo de vida das folhas de V. divergens), seguida pela cheia e enchente. O aumento na concentração de fenóis, provavelmente, está associado ao ciclo de inundações do Pantanal, e relacionado com a fenologia das folhas de V. divergens.
The synthetic n-alkyl esters of gallic acid (GA), also known as gallates, especially propyl, octyl and dodecyl gallates, are widely employed as antioxidants by food and pharmaceutical industries. The inhibitory effects of GA and 15 gallates on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) replication were investigated here. After a preliminary screening of these compounds, GA and pentyl gallate (PG) seemed to be the most active compounds against HSV-1 replication and their mode of action was characterized through a set of assays, which attempted to localize the step of the viral multiplication cycle where impairment occurred. The detected anti-HSV-1 activity was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment to and penetration into cells, and by virucidal properties. Furthermore, an anti-HIV-1 activity was also found, to different degrees. In summary, our results suggest that both compounds could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HSV-1 agents, and further studies concerning the anti-HIV-1 activity of this group of molecules are merited.