Metastatic lesions to the mandible may be originated from primary tumors elsewhere in the body. However, metastatic colonic carcinomas to this bone have been described infrequently. We report the case of a 71-year-old man with an adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon with liver metastasis. The patient underwent chemotherapy with indication of sigmoidectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. One year and four months after the first metastatic diagnosis, the patient presented a tumor mass in the body and branch of the right mandible. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies specific for CEA, CK20, CDX-2, and vilin were compatible with the diagnosis of moderately differentiated metastatic adenocarcinoma with colonic origin. However, due to the wide spread of the disease, the patient died four months later. Tumor markers have been applied in clinical practice to assist in the diagnosis and to help guide prognosis, staging and treatment of cancer. The management of metastatic lesions remains a controversial issue and the development of new and more specific markers of gastrointestinal differentiation that may promote early diagnosis, are of continuous interest.
The identification and description of signal transduction molecules and mechanisms are essential to elucidate Schistosoma mansoni host-parasite interactions and parasite biology. This mini review focuses on recent advancements in the study of signalling molecules and transduction mechanisms in S. mansoni, drawing special attention to the recently identified and characterised protein tyrosine kinases of S. mansoni.