Introduction: Complexes of monomeric hormone molecules immunoglobulin-associated lead to the formation of macro-complexes biologically inactive that are called macro-hormones. Patients’ presenting unexpectedly elevated hormones values indicates the need that the existence of macro-hormones must be researched.
Objective: To describe the macro-hormones discovered incidentally in laboratory tests, which we refer to as "incidentalormones".
Methods: An integrative review was conducted, and data was gathered from the published articles in medical database. The different forms of macro-hormones are reviewed; the biochemical significance and laboratory assays of macro-hormones are also revised within the ambit of current laboratory medicine. We discussed diagnostic difficulty encountered in patients with "incidentalormones”, as well as methods of macro-hormone detection, immunoglobulin involved, clinical significance and associations with other diseases.
Conclusion: The presence of macro-hormones, often guides us to intervention in laboratory trials, and could result in false-positive diagnosis with inadequate therapy. Laboratories should follow a diagnostic algorithm to carefully recognize and examine possible immunoassay interferences.
Introduction: The mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) have been studied, and it was suggested that inflammatory cytokines during HCV infection would change the thyroperoxidase (TPO) signaling cascade and thyroglobulin (Tg) determining autoimmune thyroid disease. Objective: To show the signaling pathway, of TPO and Tg, and their potential targets mediated HCV in individuals with hepatitis C. Methods: The mapping of the signaling pathway was based on a review study approach and performed using the automatic annotation server of the Kyoto and Genome Encyclopedia (KEGG). PathVisio is free software for analysis and design of open source routes, and was used for the graphic representation of the signaling pathway. Results: The contigs were extracted from the KEGG database and their mapped transcription represents the signaling pathway of the main biomolecules that triggers the AIT. The action of HCV or its treatment can trigger AIT that is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against TPO and Tg. In AIT, autoreactive CD4 + T lymphocytes recruit B cells and CD8 + T cells in the thyroid. The progression of the disease leads to the death of thyroid cells and hypothyroidism. Conclusion: HCV or its treatment activates several signaling pathways with thyroid cells damage resulting in AIT and secondary hypothyroidism to cellular apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Background - Exposure to viral antigens that share amino acid sequence similar with self- antigens might trigger autoimmune diseases in genetically predisposed individuals, and the molecular mimicry theory suggests that epitope mimicry between the virus and human proteins can activate autoimmune disease. Objective - The purpose of this study is to explore the possible sequence similarity between the amino acid sequences of thyroid self-protein and hepatitis C virus proteins, using databanks of proteins and immunogenic peptides, to explain autoimmune thyroid disease. Methods - Were performed the comparisons between the amino acid sequence of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein and thyroid self-protein human, available in the database of National Center for Biotechnology Information on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Results - The sequence similarity was related each hepatitis C virus genotype to each thyroid antigen. The similarities between the thyroid and the viral peptides ranged from 21.0 % (31 identical residues out of 147 amino acid in the sequence) to 71.0% (5 identical residues out of 7 amino acid in the sequence). Conclusion - Bioinformatics data, suggest a possible pathogenic link between hepatitis C virus and autoimmune thyroid disease. Through of molecular mimicry is observed that sequences similarities between viral polyproteins and self-proteins thyroid could be a mechanism of induction of crossover immune response to self-antigens, with a breakdown of self-tolerance, resulting in autoimmune thyroid disease.
RESUMO Contexto - A exposição a antígenos virais que compartilham sequência de aminoácidos semelhantes a auto-antígenos pode provocar doenças auto-imunes em indivíduos predispostos geneticamente, e a teoria do mimetismo molecular sugere que o mimetismo entre epítopos de vírus e proteínas humanas pode ativar doenças auto-imunes. Objetivo - O objetivo deste estudo foi explorar a possível semelhança entre as sequências de aminoácidos de auto-proteinas da tireóide e proteínas do vírus da hepatite C, utilizando bancos de dados de proteínas e peptídeos imunogênicos, para explicar a doença auto-imune da tireóide. Métodos - Foram realizadas comparações entre as sequências de aminoácidos de poliproteínas do vírus da hepatite C e auto-proteinas da tireóide humana, disponível na base de dados do National Center for Biotechnology Information no Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Resultados - A semelhança de sequências foi relacionada para cada genótipo de vírus da hepatite C e proteínas da tireóide. As semelhanças entre proteínas da tireóide e os peptídeos virais variaram de 21,0% (31 resíduos idênticos da sequência de 147 aminoácidos) a 71,0% (cinco resíduos idênticos da sequência de 7 aminoácidos). Conclusão - Dados de bioinformática sugerem uma possível ligação entre vírus da hepatite C e doença auto-imune da tireóide. Através de mimetismo molecular observa-se que as semelhanças entre as sequências de poliproteínas virais e auto-proteínas da tireóide pode ser um mecanismo de indução de resposta imune resultando em doença auto-imune da tireóide.
Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.
A prescrição de um medicamento sem as indicações para as quais a droga foi originalmente aprovada por órgãos reguladores é internacionalmente conhecida como prescrição off-label. Descrevemos a terapia off-label em pé diabético, relatada na literatura científica internacional, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica qualitativa, descritiva, através de pesquisa na base de dados internacional Medline, para seleção dos artigos. Os critérios para revisão foram publicações entre janeiro de 1985 e novembro de 2013, sendo as palavras-chave MeSH "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" – colocadas no formulário de busca. Foram selecionados nove artigos com informações sobre a terapia off-labelem pé diabético. Conclui-se que a prática de prescrição off-labelpossui benefícios potenciais em muitas situações. Em algumas circunstâncias, uma prescrição off-label é o único tratamento disponível, seja por não existir uma droga específica, seja porque outros métodos de tratamento são ineficazes ou não disponíveis por intolerância.
ContextThe mesenteric fat is drained by the portal system, being related to the metabolic syndrome which is an important risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).ObjectivesGraduate of visceral fat thickness and correlate with the NAFLD degree through ultrasonography method.MethodsWe studied 352 subjects for age, gender, measures of subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness as well as the presence and degree of liver fatty. Was analyzed the independent relationship between visceral fat thickness and NAFLD, and linear regression analysis was used in order to predict the visceral fat thickness from subcutaneous fat thickness.ResultsThe mean age of 225 women (63.9%) and 127 men (36.1%) was 47.5 ± 14.0 (18-77) years, 255 subjects had normal examinations, 97 had NAFLD thus distributed, 37 grade 1, 32 grade 2, and 28 grade 3. The subcutaneous fat thickness ranged from 0.26 to 3.50 cm with a mean of 1.3 ± 0.6 cm and visceral fat thickness ranged from 0.83 to 8.86 cm with a mean of 3.6 ± 1.7 cm. Linear regression showed that for every increase of 1 cm in subcutaneous fat thickness the visceral fat thickness will increase 0.9 cm.ConclusionsThe visceral fat thickness measured by ultrasonography is a useful and seems to be able to help estimate the risk of NAFLD.
ContextoA gordura mesentérica é drenada pelo sistema venoso portal, estando relacionada à síndrome metabólica, que é um importante fator de risco para doença de infiltração gordurosa do fígado.ObjetivosGraduar a espessura do tecido adiposo visceral e correlacionar com o grau de doença de infiltração gordurosa do fígado através do exame ultrassonográfico.MétodosForam estudados 352 indivíduos, avaliando-se idade, gênero, medidas da espessura da gordura subcutânea e tecido adiposo visceral, a presença e o grau de doença de infiltração gordurosa do fígado. Foi analisada a relação independente entre tecido adiposo visceral e doença de infiltração gordurosa do fígado, e a regressão linear foi utilizada para prever a tecido adiposo visceral pela espessura da gordura subcutânea.ResultadosA idade média de 225 (63,9%) mulheres e 127 (36,1%) homens foi 47,5 ± 14,0 (18-77) anos, 255 indivíduos apresentaram exames normais, 97 apresentaram doença de infiltração gordurosa do fígado assim distribuídos: 37 grau 1, 32 grau 2 e 28 grau 3. A espessura da gordura subcutânea variou de 0,26 e 3,50 cm, com uma média de 1,3 ± 0,6 cm e a tecido adiposo visceral variou de 0,83 a 8,86 cm, com uma média de 3,6 ± 1,7 cm. A regressão linear demonstrou que para cada aumento de 1 cm da espessura da gordura subcutânea o tecido adiposo visceral aumentará 0,9 cm.ConclusãoO tecido adiposo visceral medido por ultrassonografia é um instrumento útil e parece ser capaz de estimar o risco de doença de infiltração gordurosa do fígado.
Hepatic artery aneurysm (HAA) was first reported at autopsy in 1809, represents one fifth of visceral aneurysms and the mortality from spontaneous rupture is high in most of cases. We are reporting a case of an asymptomatic 48-year-old woman with an extrahepatic HAA, diagnosed initially and incidentally with abdominal ultrasonography, confirmed by a three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and angiography. Endovascular treatment was considered feasible and was successfully treated with coil embolization.
Aneurisma da artéria hepática (AAH) foi relatado pela primeira vez através de autópsia em 1809, representa um quinto dos aneurismas viscerais, e a mortalidade por ruptura espontânea é alta na maioria dos casos. Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 48 anos de idade com um AAH extra-hepático assintomático, diagnosticado inicialmente, e incidentalmente, com ultrassonografia abdominal e confirmado através de angiorressonância tridimensional e angiografia contrastada. O tratamento endovascular foi considerado viável, sendo tratada com sucesso através de embolização com molas.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of thyroid disorders (TD) in patients with chronic hepatitis C before and during interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and ribavirin (RIB) treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 65 anti-HCV and viral RNA positive patients. Free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) were systematically tested at entry (m0), week 12 (m3) and week 24 (m6) of treatment. RESULTS: Mean age of the 65 patients (38 females and 27 males) was 49.61 ± 11.83 years. Seven (10.76%) patients presented baseline thyroid disorders (m0), three had thyroid dysfunction, and four were TPO-Ab positive. Thyroid disorders occurred in the first 12 weeks of treatment in 11 (16.92%) patients, four with thyroid dysfunction, and seven with TPO-Ab positive (m3). A total of 18 patients (27.69%) developed TD after 24 weeks of treatment, 7 with thyroid dysfunction, and 11 with TPO-Ab positive (m6). The relative risk of developing hypothyroidism found in this study was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.6), hyperthyroidism 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.4), and TPO-Ab positivity 7.6 (95% CI: 3.9 to 14.5). The study showed a significant association between female sex and thyroid disease (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune TD were observed during IFN-α and RIB therapy.
Cryoglobulinemia and non-organ-specific-autoantibody are biomarkers of autoimmunity of the chronic infection caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this work, we report the association between the presence of smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) and cryoglobulinemia and chronic liver disease in HCV carriers. Sixty-five untreated HCV patients, 38 women and 27 men were included in this study. Cryoglobulinemia was tested by cryoprecipitation, SMA by indirect fluorescent antibody test, and liver fibrosis and hepatocellular inflammation activity was investigated by histology of liver biopsy using the METAVIR score. The prevalence of SMA in the patients was 33.8% and cryoglobulinemia was demonstrated in 36.9% patients. Cryoglobulinemia and SMA seropositivity was associated with advanced fibrosis (p < 0.05). The presence of SMA and cryoglobulinemia was not associated with hepatocellular inflammation activity, age, carrier gender or HCV genotype. We concluded that liver biopsy should be recommended for HCV carriers that are seropositive for SMA or cryoglobulinemia.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. This syndrome was first described by Laurence and Moon in 1866 and additional cases were described by Bardet and Biedl between 1920 and 1922. The main features are obesity, polydactyly, pigmentary retinopathy, learning disabilities, various degrees of intellectual impairment, hypogonadism, and renal abnormalities. Bardet-Biedl syndrome is both phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous. Clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of 4 of the 5 cardinal features. The authors present a typical case of pigmentary retinopathy due to Bardet-Biedl syndrome and made a brief commentary about the disease's cardinal manifestations.
A síndrome de Bardet-Biedl (BBS) é uma desordem autossômica recessiva rara, com heterogeneidade clínica e genética. Esta síndrome foi descrita pela primeira vez por Laurence e Moon em 1866 e outros casos foram descritos por Bardet e Biedl entre 1920 e 1922. As principais características são obesidade, polidactilia, retinopatia pigmentar, dificuldades de aprendizagem, graus de deficiência intelectual diversos, hipogonadismo e anomalias renais. Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl é fenotipicamente e geneticamente heterogêneos. O diagnóstico clínico baseia-se na presença de quatro dos cinco sinais principais da síndrome. Os autores apresentam um caso típico de retinopatia pigmentar devido à síndrome de Bardet-Biedl e fazem uma breve revisão sobre as manifestações da síndrome com especial atenção à retinopatia pigmentar.
Hepatitis C (HCV) is now the main cause of chronic hepatic disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several extrahepatic diseases have been associated with chronic HCV infection, and in most cases appear to be directly related to the viral infection. Thyroid disorders are common in patients with chronic HCV. Some patients with chronic hepatitis C experience thyroid problems, and thyroid dysfunction may also be a side effect of interferon-based treatment. The principal risk factor for developing thyroid disease in the course of antiviral therapy is the previous positivity for anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase) especially in older women. Screening for autoantibodies and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended before, during and after interferon-alpha treatment, and patients should be informed of the risk of thyroid dysfunction. This review includes a summary of thyroid disease associated with chronic HCV infection, interferon-alpha and ribavirin for treatment of HCV and potential to induce thyroid dysfunction.