Objective: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the cornerstone of treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, non-response is common, often necessitating combination strategies. The present study assessed the efficacy of vortioxetine as an add-on therapy in patients with SSRI-resistant MDD. Methods: The charts of 36 adult outpatients with DSM-IV-TR MDD who had not achieved a response after at least 8 weeks of treatment with an SSRI were reviewed retrospectively. Subjects were treated with vortioxetine (5-20 mg/day) for 8 weeks added to the current SSRI. The main outcome measures were change from baseline in total Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score and the rate of response (a 50% or greater reduction in HAM-D score and a Clinical Global Impression ‐ Improvement module [CGI-I] score of 1 or 2 at endpoint). HAM-D scores ≤ 7 were considered as remission. Additional outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI). Results: 32 patients completed the 8 weeks of treatment. At 8 weeks, a significant reduction in HAM-D score was observed (p ≤ 0.001), with response obtained by 41.7% and remission by 33.3% of patients. Significant reductions in SHAPS and SSI were also observed (p ≤ 0.001 for both scales). Conclusions: Adjunctive vortioxetine may be useful and well-tolerated in stage I treatment-resistant depression. However, the limitations of this study (such as small sample size, absence of randomization and control group, retrospective design, etc.) must be considered.
Objective: Autistic traits are associated with a burdensome clinical presentation of anorexia nervosa (AN), as is AN with concurrent depression. The aim of the present study was to explore the intertwined association between complex psychopathology combining autistic traits, subthreshold bipolarity, and mixed depression among people with AN. Method: Sixty patients with AN and concurrent major depressive episode (mean age, 22.2±7 years) were cross-sectionally assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient test (AQ-test), the Hamilton depression scales for depression and anxiety, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the Hypomania-Checklist-32 (HCL-32), second revision (for subthreshold bipolarity), the Brown Assessment and Beliefs Scale (BABS), the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale (YBC-EDS), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Cases were split into two groups depending on body mass index (BMI): severe AN (AN+) if BMI < 16, not severe (AN-) if BMI ≥ 16. Results: The “subthreshold bipolarity with prominent autistic traits” pattern correctly classified 83.6% of AN patients (AN+ = 78.1%; AN- = 91.3%, Exp(B) = 1.391). AN+ cases showed higher rates of positive scores for YMRS items 2 (increased motor activity-energy) and 5 (irritability) compared to AN- cases. Conclusions: In our sample, depressed patients with severe AN had more pronounced autistic traits and subtly mixed bipolarity. Further studies with larger samples and prospective follow-up of treatment outcomes are warranted to replicate these findings.